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EIGRP Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

EIGRP Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

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Published by Paul
cisco, ccna, EIGRP, Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol
cisco, ccna, EIGRP, Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol

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Published by: Paul on Mar 25, 2010
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06/09/2013

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Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
EIGRP is a classless, enhanced distance vector 
Cisco proprietary
protocol.It includes the subnet mask in its route updates.
Only EIGRP provides routing support for IP, IPX and Appletalk.
EIGRP is a hybrid routing protocol as it characteristics of both distance vector and link state.It doesn’t send link state updates like OSPF but sends distance vector updates with info aboutnetworks and the cost of reaching them. But like link state it synchronises routing tables betweenneighbors at startup and when the topology changes.EIGRP has a max hop count of 255 (default 100) EIGRP multicasts to 224.0.0.10EIGRP metrics; Delay, Bandwidth, Reliability and Load.
Neighbor Discovery
Before EIGRP routers are willing to exchange routes with each other they must becomeneighbors 3 conditions for neighborship are1.Hello or ACK received
 
2.AS numbers match3.Identical metrics (K values)Link state protocols tend to use Hello messages to establish neighborship because they don’tsend out periodic updates. To maintain the neighbors EIGRP routers must also continuereceiving Hellos. EIGRP routers that belong to different autonomous systems (ASes) don’tautomatically share routing information and become neighbours.The only time EIGRP advertises its entire routing table is when it discovers a new neighbor andforms an adjacency when this happens both neighbors advertise their entire routing table to eachother, after each has learned each others routes only changes to the route are then propergated.
Question
How often are hello messages sent by EIGRP on Ethernet media by default?A. Every 2 secondsB. Every 5 secondsC. Every 30 secondsD. Every 60 seconds
Answer B
Every 5 seconds
On a LAN or point-to-point links, these message are sent out as multicasts every 5 seconds. On a multipointnetwork like
Frame Relay
with speeds lower than T1, these packets are unicast every 60 seconds
Using EIGRP to Support Large Networks
Multiple ASes
EIGRP uses autonomous system numbers, only routers that have the same as numbers shareroutes. In large networks this can slow convergence, so the network is divided into multiple ASes.Each AS is populated by a contiguous series of routers and route information is shared amongthe different ASes via redistribution.
Redistribution within EIGRP
Normally the AD of an EIGRP route is 90, but this is true only for an internal EIGRP route.These are routes originated within a specific AS by EIGRP routers that are members of the sameAS.The other route is external EIGRP and has an AD of 170, theses routes come from manual or automatic redistribution and are networks that originated outside the EIGRP AS. It doesn’t matter if they came from EIGRP or and protocol such as OSPF they’re all considered to be externalroutes when redistributed within EIGRP.
 
Configuring EIGRP
You can enter EIGRP commands from two modes
router configuration mode
enables the protocol, determines which networks will run EIGRP,and sets global characteristics.
Interface configuration mode
covers customisation of metrics, timers etc.To start an EIGRP session use the
router eigrp
command then the AS number which can beany number 1 to 65535, the network numbers connected to the router using the
network
command followed by the network number. Let’s look at enabling EIGRP for AS 20 on a router connected to two networks with the network 10.3.1.0/24 and 172.16.10.0/24
Router#config tRouter(config)#
router eigrp 20
Router(config-router)#
network 172.16.0.0
 Router(config-router)#
network 10.0.0.0
With EIGRP you use classful network address, which has subnet and host bits turned off.To stop EIGRP from working on a specific interface such as a BRI interface or a serial connectionto the internet, we need to flag the interface as passive.For example to make serial 0/1 passive.
passive-interface
<interface>
Router(config)#
router eigrp 20
Router(config-router)#
 passive-interface serial 0/1
Doing this stops the interface from sending or receiving hello packets
it won’t send or receive route information on this interface and stop adjacencies forming.The impact of the passive-interface command depends upon the routing protocol e.g. on aninterface 
running RIP the passive-interface command prohibits the sending of routeupdates but allows their receipt
.Thus a RIP router with a passive interface will still learn aboutnetworks advertised by other routers.
This is different from EIGRP where a passive interfacewill neither send nor receive updates.
Lets configure the same network configured in the last section it doesn’t matter that RIP andIGRP are already running unless your worried about bandwidth EIGRP has an administrativedistance of 90. (IGRP is 100 RIP is 120) so only EIGRP routes will populate the routing tableseven if all 3 routing protocols are enabled.

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