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Ai. Chapter II

Ai. Chapter II

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08/12/2013

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CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1 Definition of Speaking
Chaney (1998: 13) says that speaking is the process of building and sharingmeaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts.Speaking is a crucial part of second and foreign language learning and teaching.Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued andEnglish language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today's world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills, because, only inthat way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social andcultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance.Furthermore speaking is one of the central elements of communication. InEFL (English as Foreigner language) teaching, it is an aspect that needs specialattention and instruction. In order to provide effective attention, it is necessary for ateacher of EFL to carefully examine the factors, condition and components thatunderlie speaking effectiveness (Richards, 1999:230). Effective instruction derivedfrom the careful analysis of this area, together with sufficient language input andspeech-promotion activities will gradually help learners improve their Englishspeaking ability.Many factors cause students reluctant to communicate in English; some of those are cultural factors, linguistic factors or ineffectual factor. Here the researcher only focus on the students to explain the effective factors since it is strongly related
 
to the research being done by the researcher. The ineffectual factors include cultureshock, previous negative social and political experiences, lack of motivation, anxietyand shyness in class, especially if their previous learning experiences were negative(Nunan, 1999:231). All the factors stated above give the effect on the students’speaking ability. So, the teacher has to solve this problem as good as possible.Furthermore, students seem to possess a reluctance to speak in English may be due to the students’ fear of looking and feeling foolish when they make a mistakethat would make the others laugh at them or even look down on them. This method proposes to help the students eliminate their resistance to learning spoken language by making them forget their difficulties in learning (Brown, (1994: 23). Yet,countless studies and experiments in human learning have shown that motivation is akey in learning. Therefore the teacher is expected to motivate the students the classwhile they are learning English speaking skill.
2.2 The Importance of Speaking
In relation to the purpose of the teaching of English as a foreign language, acrucial thing is to teach students to speak in order to communicate through thelanguage, Allen and Widdowson (in Brumfit and Keith, 1979) elaborate that Englishteaching has been called upon to provide students with the basic ability to use thelanguage, to receive information, and to convey information associated with their special study.One of the aims of most language programs is to develop spoken languageskill and most programs aim to integrate both spoken and written language (Burn andJoyce, 1997). Learning the language means using it in communication in oral or 
 
8written form, and being able to express felling, thought, and experience in variouscontexts, Lado (1964 : 51) states that to know the language is to use it. He further states that students do not know a sentence until he can speak it.The teaching of speaking skill will enable students to realize their progress or maturity in thinking. It is important that the development of the spoken language isnot simply a matter of learning skills such as pronouncing English sounds or beingable to produce single utterances or phrases. The teaching of speaking conveys thesense of exposing the students to express their thought, idea, and feelings. It isconsidered important in terms of the teaching of language, since it can bring thestudents to think creatively and through speaking they can express what they arethinking about.
2.3Teaching Speaking and the Learners’ Problem in Learning Speaking
 Nunan (2003: 23) in this case formulates what is meant by teaching speaking:-Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns-Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of thesecond language.-Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting,audience, situation and subject matter.-Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence.-Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments.-Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which iscalled as fluency.

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