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Heat and mass transfer-Cengel-solutions manual-Chap04_110_158[1]

Heat and mass transfer-Cengel-solutions manual-Chap04_110_158[1]

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4-81
Review Problems
4-110
Two large steel plates are stuck together because of the freezing of the water between the two plates.Hot air is blown over the exposed surface of the plate on the top to melt the ice. The length of time the hotair should be blown is to be determined.
 Assumptions
1
Heat conduction in the plates is one-dimensional since the plate is large relative to itsthickness and there is thermal symmetry about the center plane.
3
The thermal properties of the steel platesare constant.
4
The heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform over the entire surface.
5
The Fourier number is
τ
> 0.2 so that the one-term approximate solutions (or the transient temperature charts) areapplicable (this assumption will be verified).
 Properties
The thermal properties of steel plates are given to be
= 43 W/m.
°
C and
α 
= 1.17
×
10
-5
m
2
/s
 Analysis
 
The characteristic length of the plates and the Biot number are
1.0019.0 )CW/m.43( )m02.0)(C.W/m40( m02.0
2
<=°°=====
hL Bi L A L
c sc
V  
 Steel plates
i
= -15
°
CHot gases
= 50
°
CSince , the lumped system analysis is applicable. Therefore,
0.1<Bi
 
min8.0s482
== ⎯ ⎯ =  ⎯ ⎯ ==°×°===
ee LchchAb
bt ic p p s
)ts000544.0( 1-362
1-
5015500)(s000544.0 m)(0.02)C.J/m10675.3( C.W/m40
 ρ  ρ 
V  
 whereC.J/m10675.3 /sm1017.1 CW/m.43
3625
°×=×°==
α  ρ 
c
 p
 
Alternative solution:
This problem can also be solved using the transient chart Fig. 4-15a,2.015 769.050155006.52019.011
20
>======
oi
 Bi
α τ 
 Then,
s513
=×==
/s)m1017.1( m)02.0)(15(
2522
α τ 
o
 The difference is due to the reading error of the chart.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
 
 
 
4-82
4-111
A curing kiln is heated by injecting steam into it and raising its inner surface temperature to aspecified value. It is to be determined whether the temperature at the outer surfaces of the kiln changesduring the curing period.
 Assumptions
1
The temperature in the wall is affected by the thermal conditions at inner surfaces only andthe convection heat transfer coefficient inside is very large. Therefore, the wall can be considered to be asemi-infinite medium with a specified surface temperature of 45
°
C.
2
The thermal properties of theconcrete wall are constant.
 Properties
The thermal properties of the concrete wall are given to be
= 0.9 W/m.
°
C and
α
= 0.23
×
10
-5
 m
2
/s.
 Analysis
We determine the temperature at a depth of 
 x
=0.3 m in 2.5 h using the analytical solution,6
°
C42
°
C30 cmKiln wall
 x
0 
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
 xerfc x
i si
α 
2),( Substituting,
C11.0
°=== ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ××=
),(1402.0)043.1( )s/h3600h5.2)(/sm1023.0(2 m3.0 6426),(
25
 xerfcerfc x
 which is greater than the initial temperature of 6
°
C. Therefore, heat will propagate through the 0.3 m thick wall in 2.5 h, and thus it may be desirable to insulate the outer surface of the wall to save energy.
4-112
The water pipes are buried in the ground to prevent freezing. The minimum burial depth at a particular location is to be determined.
 Assumptions
1
The temperature in the soil is affected by the thermal conditions at one surface only, andthus the soil can be considered to be a semi-infinite medium with a specified surface temperature of -10
°
C.
2
The thermal properties of the soil are constant.
 Properties
The thermal properties of the soil are givento be
= 0.7 W/m.
°
C and
α
= 1.4
×
10
-5
m
2
/s.
Soil
i
=15
°
CWater pipe
s
=-10
°
C
 x Analysis
The depth at which the temperature dropsto 0
°
C in 75 days is determined using the analyticalsolution,
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
 xerfc x
i si
α 
2),( Substituting and using Table 4-4, we obtain
m7.05
= ⎯ ⎯  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ×××=
 x xerfc
 )s/h3600h/day24day75)(/sm104.1(2 1510150
25
 Therefore, the pipes must be buried at a depth of at least 7.05 m.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
 
 
 
4-83
4-113
A hot dog is to be cooked by dropping it into boiling water. The time of cooking is to be determined.
 Assumptions
1
Heat conduction in the hot dog is two-dimensional, and thus the temperature varies in boththe axial
 x
- and the radial
- directions.
2
The thermal properties of the hot dog are constant.
4
The heattransfer coefficient is constant and uniform over the entire surface.
5
The Fourier number is
τ
> 0.2 so thatthe one-term approximate solutions (or the transient temperature charts) are applicable (this assumptionwill be verified).
 Properties
The thermal properties of the hot dog are given to be
= 0.76 W/m.
°
C,
ρ
= 980 kg/m
3
,
c
 p
= 3.9kJ/kg.
°
C, and
α
= 2
×
10
-7
m
2
/s.
 Analysis
This hot dog can physically be formed by the intersection of an infinite plane wall of thickness2
 L
= 12 cm, and a long cylinder of radius
o
 =
 D
/2 = 1 cm. The Biot numbers and corresponding constantsare first determined to be37.47)CW/m.76.0( )m06.0)(C.W/m600(
2
=°°==
hL Bi
2726.1 and 5380.1
11
== ⎯ ⎯ 
A
λ 
 895.7)CW/m.76.0( )m01.0)(C.W/m600(
2
=°°==
hr  Bi
o
5514.1 and 1249.2
11
== ⎯ ⎯ 
A
λ 
  Noting that and assuming
τ
> 0.2 in all dimensions and thus the one-term approximate solutionfor transient heat conduction is applicable, the product solution for this problem can be written as
2
/
L
α τ 
=
 
2105.0)01.0( )102( )1249.2(exp)5514.1(  )06.0( )102( )5380.1(exp)2726.1( 100510080),0(),0(),0,0(
27227211
2121
=×××= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ==
e Ae A
cyl wall block 
τ λ τ λ 
θ θ θ 
 
Water100
°
C2 cm Hot dog
i
= 5
°
C
which gives
min4.1s244
=
=
Therefore, it will take about 4.1 min for the hot dog to cook. Note that
2.049.0 m)01.0( s)/s)(244m102(
2272
>=×==
ocyl 
α τ 
 and thus the assumption
τ
> 0.2 for the applicability of the one-term approximate solution is verified.
 Discussion
This problem could also be solved by treating the hot dog as an infinite cylinder since heattransfer through the end surfaces will have little effect on the mid section temperature because of the largedistance.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
 

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