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Royal Society : Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming

Royal Society : Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming

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Published by supahumandignity
22 mars 2010
"Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming"
http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1882/3989.full

La Royal Society est depuis longtemps déjà un agent de promotion pro géoingénierie.
Ce document est archivé ici, pour pouvoir en retrouver son contenu.

Nous dénonçons les idées développées dans ces pages.

Nous nous opposons au recours à la géoingénierie, et à l'hypocrisie qui entoure son avènement.
Vendue aujourd'hui comme un médicament du futur (pour la planète et l'économie), alors qu'elle est massivement expérimentée depuis des années, assez longtemps en tout cas pour qu'on puisse commencer à en voir les désastreuses conséquences sanitaires.

Voir :
http://www.scribd.com/doc/25710148/Retooling-the-Planet-Climate-Chaos-in-a-Geoengineering-Age-by-ETC-group
http://www.scribd.com/doc/28734078/Reautomatiser-la-planete
22 mars 2010
"Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming"
http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1882/3989.full

La Royal Society est depuis longtemps déjà un agent de promotion pro géoingénierie.
Ce document est archivé ici, pour pouvoir en retrouver son contenu.

Nous dénonçons les idées développées dans ces pages.

Nous nous opposons au recours à la géoingénierie, et à l'hypocrisie qui entoure son avènement.
Vendue aujourd'hui comme un médicament du futur (pour la planète et l'économie), alors qu'elle est massivement expérimentée depuis des années, assez longtemps en tout cas pour qu'on puisse commencer à en voir les désastreuses conséquences sanitaires.

Voir :
http://www.scribd.com/doc/25710148/Retooling-the-Planet-Climate-Chaos-in-a-Geoengineering-Age-by-ETC-group
http://www.scribd.com/doc/28734078/Reautomatiser-la-planete

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doi: 10.1098/rsta.2008.0136, 3989-4006
366
2008
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A
Stephen Salter, Graham Sortino and John Latham
of reversing global warmingSea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method
References
l.html#ref-list-1http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1882/3989.ful 
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(51 articles)climatology  collectionsArticles on similar topics can be found in the following
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To subscribe toThis journal is © 2008 The Royal Society
 on March 22, 2010rsta.royalsocietypublishing.orgDownloaded from 
 
Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedomethod of reversing global warming
B
Y
S
TEPHEN
S
ALTER
1,
*, G
RAHAM
S
ORTINO
2
AND
J
OHN
L
ATHAM
3
1
Institute for Energy Systems, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK 
2
School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AB, UK 
3
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA
Following the review by Latham
et al 
. (Latham
et al 
. 2008
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A
366
) of a strategy to reduce insolation by exploiting the Twomey effect, the present paperdescribes in outline the rationale and underlying engineering hardware that may bring thestrategy from concept to operation. Wind-driven spray vessels will sail back and forthperpendicular to the local prevailing wind and release micron-sized drops of seawater intothe turbulent boundary layer beneath marine stratocumulus clouds. The combination of wind and vessel movements will treat a large area of sky. When residues left after dropevaporation reach cloud level they will provide many new cloud condensation nucleigiving more but smaller drops and so will increase the cloud albedo to reflect solar energyback out to space. If the possible power increase of 3.7 W m
K
2
from double pre-industrialCO
2
is divided by the 24-hour solar input of 340 W m
K
2
, a global albedo increase of only1.1 per cent will produce a sufficient offset. The method is
not 
intended to make newclouds. It will just make existing clouds whiter. This paper describes the design of 300tonne ships powered by Flettner rotors rather than conventional sails. The vessels willdrag turbines resembling oversized propellers through the water to provide the means forgenerating electrical energy. Some will be used for rotor spin, but most will be used tocreate spray by pumping 30 kg s
K
1
of carefully filtered water through banks of filters andthen to micro-nozzles with piezoelectric excitation to vary drop diameter. The rotors offera convenient housing for spray nozzles with fan assistance to help initial dispersion. Theratio of solar energy reflected by a drop at the top of a cloud to the energy needed to makethe surface area of the nucleus on which it has grown is many orders of magnitude and sothe spray quantities needed to achieve sufficient global cooling are technically feasible.
Keywords: global warming; Flettner rotor; Twomey effect; albedo control;cloud condensation nuclei; spray generation
1. Introduction
Other contributions to this volume byCaldeira & Wood (2008)andRasch
.(2008)examine the possibilities of injecting a sulphur aerosol into the upperlayers of the stratosphere to increase albedo. Here, as proposed in the companion
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A
(2008)
366
, 3989–4006doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0136
Published online 
29 August 2008One contribution of 12 to a Theme Issue ‘Geoscale engineering to avert dangerous climate change’.*Author for correspondence (s.salter@ed.ac.uk).
3989
This journal is
q
2008 The Royal Society
 on March 22, 2010rsta.royalsocietypublishing.orgDownloaded from 
 
paper, Latham
et al 
. (2006), a differentstrategy is developed that exploits the Twomey effect, a striking, if inadvertent,demonstration of that which is provided infigure 1. Taken from a NASA satelliteimage, the long white streaks are caused by sulphates in the trails of exhaustsfrom ship engines which provide extra condensation nuclei for new drops. Since,in the scheme we propose, the aim is to increase the solar reflectivity of suchlow-level maritime clouds and since a fine salt aerosol provides an admirablereplacement for the sulphates whose effectiveness is evident infigure 1, it seemedappropriate for the sprays to be dispersed from sea-going vessels (rather than,say, low-flying aircraft) and for the source of the sprays to be drawn from theocean itself. Thus, the present paper explores some of the design issues andconcepts in using a fleet of wind-driven spray vessels to achieve the requiredalbedo increase.The first step in vessel design is to estimate the spray volumes needed. Cloudalbedo
A
depends on cloud depth
in metres, liquid water content
L
, usuallyexpressed in ml m
K
3
, and the concentration of cloud drops
, usually expressedas the number per ml of air. For engineering purposes the equations inTwomey’sclassic paper (1977), usefully discussed bySchwartz & Slingo (1996), can be condensed by the use of a variable
(
,
L
,
).If 
ð
;
L
;
Þ
h
0
:
15
ZL
2
=
3
1
=
3
;
ð
1
:
1
Þ
then albedo
A
ð
;
L
;
Þ
Z
ð
;
L
;
Þ
ð
;
L
;
Þ
C
0
:
827
:
ð
1
:
2
Þ
Figure 1. Demonstration of the Twomey effect. The photograph is a NASA satellite image of shiptracks over the Bay of Biscay. It was images such as this that triggered the Twomey work.
S. Salter et al.
3990
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A
(2008)
 on March 22, 2010rsta.royalsocietypublishing.orgDownloaded from 

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