Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1


Ratings: (0)|Views: 4,824 |Likes:
Published by MAHALAKSHMI
This is done by Jothi Priya M.Phil Periyar university Salem
This is done by Jothi Priya M.Phil Periyar university Salem

More info:

Published by: MAHALAKSHMI on Mar 27, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Introduction of hypothesis:
The formulation of hypothesis or proposition as to the possible answers to theresearch questions is an importance steps in the process of formulation of the research problem. Hypothesis is usually considered as the principal instrument in research. Itsmain function is to suggest new experiment and observations. Keen observation,creative thinking, hunch, unit, imagination, vision, insight and sound judgement are of greater importance in setting up reasonable hypotheses. A thorough knowledge aboutthe phenomenon and related fields is of great value in its process. The formulation of hypotheses plays an important part in the growth of knowledge in every science. Thehypotheses are formulated to facilitate the findings of the research study.
Meaning of hypothesis:
The relationship between/ among variables,
The research hypothesis is a predictive statement, capable for beingtested by scientific methods, that relates an independent variable tosome dependent variable. The level of influence of independentvariables on the dependent variables.
E.g.: “students who receive counselling will show a greater increase increativity than students not receiving counselling.”
A proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations.
A hypothesis is a precise testable statement prediction of what theresearcher expects to find or prove.
It is a tentative answer to a research question.
A hypothesis is a tentative proposition formulated for empirical testing.It is a declarative statement combining concept.
Definition of hypothesis:
Goode and Hatt have defined a hypothesis, “a proposition which can be put to test to determine validity.”
According to Rummel and Balline, “A hypothesis is a statement capableof being tested and thereby verified or rejected.”
According to M.H. Gopal ,”a hypothesis is a tentative solution posed ona cursory observation of known and available data and adopted provisionally to explain certain events and to guide in the investigationof others .It is, in fact, a possible solution to the problem.”.
A tentative theory or supposition provisionally adopted to explaincertain facts, and to guide, in the investigation of others, hence,frequently called a working hypothesis.
Characteristics of hypothesis:
Hypothesis must possess the following chacteristics:
Hypothesis should be clear and precise. If the hypothesis is not clear and precise, the inferences drawn on its basis cannot be taken as reliable.
Hypothesis should be capable of being tested. In a swamp of untestablehypothesis, many time the research programmes have bogged down.Some prior study may be done by researcher in order to makehypothesis a testable one
Hypothesis should state relations between variables, if it happens to be arelational hypothesis.
Hypothesis should be limited in scope and must be specific. Aresearcher must remember the narrower hypothesis is generally moretestable and he should develop such hypothesis.
Hypothesis should be stated as far as possible in most simple terms sothat the same is easily understandable by all concerned. But one mustremember that simplicity of hypothesis has nothing to do with itssignificance.
Hypothesis should be amenable to testing within a reasonable time. Oneshould not use even an excellent hypothesis, if the same cannot be testedin reasonable time for one cannot spend a life-time collecting data to testit.
Hypothesis must explain the facts that gave rise to the need foexplanation. This means that by using the hypothesis plus other knownand accepted generalization, one should be able to deduce the original problem condition. Thus hypothesis must actually explain what it claimsto explain; it should have empirical reference.
Importance of hypothesis:
Hypothesis has a very important place in research although it occupies avery small place in the body of a thesis. It is almost impossible for aresearch worker not to have and or more hypotheses before proceedingwith his work. The importance of hypothesis can be more specificallystated as under:
It Provides direction to research. It defines what is relevant and what isirrelevant. Thus it prevents the review of irrelevant literature and thecollection of useless or excess data.
It is the investigator’s eye- a sort of guiding light in the world of darkness.
It prevents blind research. Prevents indiscriminate gathering of datawhich may later turn to be irrelevant.
It places clear and specific goals before us. These clear and specificgoals provide the investigator with a basis for selecting samples andresearch procedures to meet these goals.
It serves the function of the linking together related facts andinformation and organising them in to one comprehensible whole.
It enables the investigator to understand with greater clarity his problemand its ramifications, as well as data which beat on it.
It serves as a formulation for drawing conclusions. It provides theoutline for setting conclusions in a meaningful way.
Difficulties of hypothesis:
There are a number of difficulties from which a beginner may suffer atthe stage of formulating a good hypothesis.
Lack of knowledge and clarity of the theoretical framework of the areain which the investigator chooses to work.
Lack of ability to make use of the theoretical framework logically.
Lack of acquaintance with available research technique resulting infailure to be able to phrase the hypothesis properly.
Vagueness of the statement: For example, a course in ethics will make astudent a more ethical adult.
Criteria of a good hypothesis:
A good hypothesis must satisfy the following criteria;
It should provide tentative answer o the proposed problem. This can bein the form of a declaration statement or in the form of a directionalstatement or in a null form.
It should be operational, that is there should be a method for recordingand measuring the variables involved in the hypothesis.

Activity (30)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Er Tarun Kumar liked this
Seenaiah Kale added this note
kartikeya10 liked this
Sharath Das liked this
gggggghh liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->