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Project Report on Soil Pollution 2

Project Report on Soil Pollution 2



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Published by siddharth shankar

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Published by: siddharth shankar on Mar 27, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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SOIL POLLUTIONFirst of all we should know that what is soil?
The soil is a resource for which there is no substitute.Environmental historian ³Donald worster´ reminds us thatfertilizers are not a substitute for fertile soil.The soil is a thin covering over the land consisting of a mixture of a minerals, organic materials, living organism, air and water, Thattogether support the growth of plant life. Several factors contributeto the formation of soil from the parent material. This include themechanical weathering activities, and lichens. Climate and timeare also important n the development of soils. In extremely dry or cold climates soils develop very slowly, while in humid and warmclimates soils develop more rapidly. Under ideal climateconditions ,soft parent material may require hundreds of years todevelop into soil. Mature soils are arranged in a series of zonescalled µsoil horizons¶. Each horizons has a distinct texture andcomposition that varies with different types of soils. A cross-sectional view of the horizons in a soil is called a soil profile.Therefore it is essential that proper soil conservation measuresare used to minimize the loss of the top soil. There are severaltechniques that can protect the soil from erosion, today, bothwater and soil are conserves through integrated treatmentmethods. The two types of treatment generally used are:-
Area treatment, which involves treatment the land
Drainage-line treatment, which involves treating the naturalwater courses(nalas)
  Area treatment
PURPOSE TREATMENT MEASURE EFFECTReduce the impact of rain drops on the soilDevelop vegetative cover onthe non arable landMinimum disturbance anddisplacement of soil practices.Infiltration of water where it falls Apply water infiltrationmeasures on the areaIn-situ soil and moistureconservationMinimum surface runoff Store surplus rain water byconstructing bunds, ponds inthe area
Increased soil moisture in thearea, facilitate ground water rechargeRidge to valleysequencingTreat the upper catchmentfirst and then proceedtowards the outlets
Economically viable, less riskof damage and longer life of structures of the lower catchments
Drainage-line treatment
PURPOSE TREARMENT MEASURE EFFECTStop further deepening of gullies and retain sedimentrun-off Plug the gullies at formation Stops erosion, rechargesgroundwater at the upper levelReduce run-off velocity,pass cleaner water to thedownstream sideCreate temporary barriersin nalasDelayed flow and increasedgroundwater rechargeMinimum sedimentation inthe storage basinsUse various methods totreat the catchmentsLow construction cost Use local material and skillsfor constructing thestructuresStructures are locallymaintained
The contamination of soil with solid waste, acid rain excess of fertilizers, Insecticides and herbicides is called soil pollution (or land pollution). Soil pollution results from the build up of contaminants, toxic compounds, radioactive materials, salts,chemicals and cancer-causing agents. The most common soilpollutants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals (cadmium, lead,chromium, copper, zinc, mercury and arsenic), herbicides,pesticides, oils, tars, PCBs and dioxins.Until the 1970s, there was little talk of soil pollution and itsdevastating effects. In the 1980s, the U.S. Superfund was createdto set guidelines for the handling of hazardous material and soilcontamination cleanup. Today there are more than 200,000 sitesawaiting EPA soil cleanup, which is very expensive and labor-intensive work. Even a small cleanup project can cost $10,000,while larger areas require millions of dollars to clean it up for 

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