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Epidemiology MCQs

Epidemiology MCQs

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Published by: yooshlo on Mar 27, 2010
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Epidemiology & Biostatistics Mock ExaminationLent 20101. In a hypothetical clinical trial, a new drug was compared with "standard therapy" treatment. The endpoint wasmyocardial infarction. Which of the following best describes the primary reason to randomize patients to treatments? (Choose one bestanswer)a. to create two treatment groups that are similar at baseline on both known and unknown factors associated withmyocardial infarction.b. prevent bias introduced when the patients know what type of treatment they are receivingc. prevent bias introduced when the investigators know what type of treatment the patients are receivingd. b and c2. A randomized trial studied 242 HIV-seropositive, 2nd-trimester pregnant women to assess the efficacy of zidovudine(AZT) in preventing perinatal HIV transmission. Results were:Results from a randomized trial of the efficacy of zidovudine in preventing perinatal HIV transmission
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2a. Which one answer best describes the transmission rate in the table? a. proportionb. relative ratec. absolute rated. oddsb. Using the data in the table, estimate the relative risk of HIV infection for infants whose mothers took zidovudinerelative to infants of mothers who took placebo. Show formula and calculations.3. In a case-control study to investigate oral contraception and breast cancer (Choose one best answer)Options: A. cases would be women with breast cancer.B. controls would be given oral contraception.C. cases would be given oral contraception.D. women with breast cancer would be randomly allocated to be cases or controls.E. controls would be observed for several years to see how many developed breast cancer.4. The paired t test is(Choose two best answers): A. impractical for large samples.B. equivalent to a chi-squared test.C. suitable for very small samples.D. used for independent samples.E. requires the assumption that differences between paired observations follow a Normal Distribution.
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5. For a t test for two independent samples to be (Choose two best answers): A. the numbers of observations must be approximately the same in the two groups.B. the standard deviations of observations must be approximately the same in the two groups.C. the means must be approximately the same in the two groups.D. the observations must be from distributions which are approximately Normal.E. the sizes of samples the must be small.6. The standard chi-squared test for a 2x2 contingency table is not valid unless (Choose 1 best answer): A. all the expected frequencies are greater than five.B. both variables are continuous.C. at least one variable is from a Normal Distribution.D. all the observed frequencies are greater than five.E.the sample size is at least 100.7. Regarding observational studies (Please answer true/false):a.Produce definitive inferential evidenceb.Can demonstrate causationc.are more useful for generating etiological hypotheses than testing or establishing themd.a difference in a study could be due to bias, confounding or chancee.Selection bias occurs in case control studies but not in cross-sectional prevalent studies.f.Selection bias is a distortion of study results that occurs because of the way subjects are selected into the studyLoss to follow-up and subjects’ withdrawal from participation in the study, are the primary source of information ormisclassification bias in cohort studies.g.Cross-sectional studies are better suited to generating hypothesis about exposure-disease relationship than totesting such relationship8. Bradford Hill considerations for causal criteria can be summarised as (Please answer true/false):a.Temporalityb.Dose-response relationshipc.Consistencyd.Plausibilitye.Specificityf.Experimental evidence
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