Why quantum mechanics ?
Quantum mechanics is essential to understand the behaviour of systems at atomic lengthscale and smaller. For example, if classical mechanics governed the working of an atom,electrons would rapidly travel toward and collide with the nucleus, making stable atomsimpossible. However, in the natural world electrons remain in an uncertain, non-deterministic “smeared”, wave particle wave function, in an orbital path around orthrough the nucleus, defying classical electromagnetism.
Classical physics is an imperfect theory, but is only so when dealing with very small ,atomic size field, where the quantum mechanics is used, or on the very fast, near thespeed of light, where the relativity takes over. For everyday things, which are muchlarger than atoms and much slower than the speed of light, classical physics does anexcellent job. Plus, it is much easier to use than either quantum mechanics or relativity,which require an extensive amount of mathematics.
At the atomic scale of quantum mechanics, measurements become a very delicateprocess. Let’s say you want to find out where an electron is and where it is going. Howwould you do it? Get a super high powered magnifier and look for it? The very act of looking depends upon light, which is made of photons, and these photons could haveenough momentum that they hit the electron, and they would change its course!Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle completely flies in face of classical physics ! After all,the very foundation of science is the ability to measure things accurately, and nowquantum mechanics is saying that it’s impossible to get those measurements exact !But Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is a fact of nature, impossible to get around it.
Ever heard about Schrõdinger’s equation ?
Every quantum particle ischaracterized by a wave function. In1925 Erwin Schrödinger developedthe differential equation whichdescribes the evolution of thosewave functions. By usingSchrödinger's equation scientists canfind the wave function which solves aparticular problem in quantummechanics. Unfortunately, it isusually impossible to find an exactsolution to the equation, so certainassumptions are used in order toobtain an approximate answer forthe particular problem.
Take a loock at the equation, indeed some complicated forme, perhaps also for you ? Yes, let us forget the equation !