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Published by Chris McAndrew
A basic introduction to Session Initiation Protocol
A basic introduction to Session Initiation Protocol

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Published by: Chris McAndrew on Mar 27, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is a text-based protocol, similar to the HTTP andSMTP, designed for initiating, maintaining and terminating of interactivecommunication sessions between users. Such sessions include voice, video, chat,interactive games, and virtual reality.The SIP defines and uses the following components:
UAC (User agent client) – client in the terminal that initiates SIP signalling
UAS (User agent server) – server in the terminal that responds to the SIPsignalling from the UAC
UA (User Agent) – SIP network terminal (SIP telephones, or gateway to othernetworks), contains UAC and UAS
Proxy server – receives connection requests from the UA and transfers them toanother proxy server if the particular station is not in its administration
Redirect server – receives connection requests and sends them back to therequester including destination data instead of sending them to the callingparty
Location Server – receives registration requests from the UA and updates theterminal database with them.All server sections (Proxy, Redirect, Location) are typically available on a singlephysical machine called proxy server, which is responsible for client databasemaintenance, connection establishing, maintenance and termination, and calldirecting.Basic messages sent in the SIP environment
INVITE – connection establishing request
ACK – acknowledgement of INVITE by the final message receiver
BYE – connection termination
CANCEL – termination of non-established connection
REGISTER – UA registration in SIP proxy
OPTIONS – inquiry of server optionsAnswers to SIP messages are in the digital format like in the http protocol. Here arethe most important ones:
1XX – information messages (100 – trying, 180 – ringing, 183 – progress)
2XX – successful request completion (200 – OK)
3XX – call forwarding, the inquiry should be directed elsewhere (302 –temporarily moved, 305 – use proxy)
4XX – error (403 – forbidden)
5XX – server error (500 – Server Internal Error, 501 – not implemented)
6XX – global failure (606 – Not Acceptable)

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