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Application Cfd on Design of Diesel Inlet Port

# Application Cfd on Design of Diesel Inlet Port

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01/05/2011

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Journal of Computational and Applied Mechanics, Vol. 4., No. 2., (2003), pp. 129–14
APPLICATION OF CFD NUMERICAL SIMULATION FORINTAKE PORT SHAPE DESIGN OF A DIESEL ENGINE
Andr´as Horv´ath
Department of Physics, Sz´echenyi Istv´an UniversityEgyetem er 1, 9026 GY˝OR, Hungary
horvatha@sze.hu
Zolt´an Horv´ath
Department of Mathematics, Sz´echenyi Istv´an UniversityEgyetem er 1, 9026 GY˝OR, Hungary
horvathz@sze.hu
Abstract.
In this paper we investigate the air ﬂow characteristics of the intake port of a Diesel engine by numerical simulation, which is based on a self developed code. Sev-eral possibilities of the mathematical model of the engineering problem and their numericalsolutions are implemented, discussed and some of them developed further and comparedwith actual physical measurements. As a conclusion we ﬁnd that a ﬁrst order ﬁnite volumemethod, the Vijayasundaram ﬂux vector split method with local time-stepping is suitablefor computing the ﬂow characteristics, namely the ﬂow and swirl coeﬃcients, accurately.By accuracy we mean that the computed and the measured quantities diﬀer in 0–0.5% and0.5–10%, respectively, validating our numerical model. Applying subsequently this code anda domain deformation we are able to increase in 1% the ﬂow coeﬃcient under the constraintof a constant swirl number, which is signiﬁcant since only small modiﬁcations were allowed.76M12, 76N25, 65M99: compressible ﬂuid ﬂow, numerical solution of Euler equations, Diesel engine ﬂowproblems, geometric parameter optimization
1.
Introduction
1.1.
The engineering problem.
The value of a Diesel engine is described by agreat many variables, e.g. power, eﬃciency, emission of pollution. They depend onnumerous parameters of the engine, e.g. geometrical structure (intake port, cylinder,combustion chamber), injection parameters etc., in a very complex way.Hence the engineering process of developing a Diesel engine consists of several con-secutive steps. At one of the ﬁrst stages a suitable intake geometry is determinedand then, proceeding further, the geometry of the combustion chamber and the pa-rameters of the injection etc. are adjusted so that the resulting engine satisﬁes theprescribed power, air pollution, etc. values.

130
A. Horv´ ath and Z. Horv´ ath
An opaque model Surface gridFigure 1. Overview of an intake geometryIn this paper we focus on the design of the intake geometry (for a typical examplesee Figure 1), which is of crucial importance for the engine eﬃciency. Namely, thisdetermines largely the amount of fresh air intaken during an engine cycle and therotation of the ﬂuid in the cylinder and combustion chamber, which have a closeinﬂuence on the eﬃciency of the combustion. The features of the intake geometryare characterized by two non-dimensional numbers computed from measurements of a quasi-stationary ﬂow, the ﬂux-coeﬃcient and the swirl-coeﬃcient, denoted by
and
s
respectively; for a more detailed deﬁnition see Section 3.1.Now the engineering problem we are dealing with in this paper is formulated asfollows. We have to modify a certain given intake geometry by small deformations sothat the resulting intake geometry will be “optimal”: the larger
the better while
s
belongs to a certain given interval (determined a priori from the existing model)and the volume of intake port will be smaller, if possible. We would like to emphasizethat due to technical restrictions only small deformations are allowed.An “optimal” intake geometry is sought traditionally by a sequence of consecutivemeasurements of these numbers and test-piece modiﬁcations; then the best model ischosen “optimal”. It is clear that this process is rather expensive and time consuming.Our task is to substitute a reliable numerical simulation for this process.1.2.
The numerical simulation.
As part of an industrial project, our task wasto simulate the step of optimal intake port design by numerical simulation. Forthis we had to compute
and
s
from a geometry given by a CAD-model andmechanical parameters, by simulation. Moreover, using these coeﬃcients and otherﬂow parameters such as graphs of pressure distribution we had to suggest an “optimal”intake geometry. For similar problems investigated in the literature consult e.g. [5],[7] and references therein.

Intake port shape design of a diesel engine with CFD numerical simulation
131For solving our complex problem we had to face – among others – the followingsubproblems:
selecting an appropriate mathematical model for the gas ﬂow;
ﬁnding a fast numerical solution of the mathematical model;
implementing the resulting algorithm eﬃciently;
validating the numerical model with experiments;
ﬁnding small deformations to improve the geometrysuch that the resulting simulation be robust and give suﬃciently accurate result com-pared with actual measurements.In the literature there exist a great number of suggestions for solving the math-ematical subproblems, see e.g. [2], [4], [6], [8], [11]. However, it seems there existonly few papers dealing with the engineering subproblems such as veriﬁcation withmeasurements as well; for an example see [5] and [7].For solving the complex problem, we found a simple and yet adequate approach,which will be presented and discussed in the paper. Its main features are the following:
compressible Euler equations for gas ﬂow;
Vijayasundaram’s ﬂux vector split ﬁnite volume method on a ﬁxed (i.e. non-adaptive) unstructured tetrahedral mesh; here we applied for time stepping alocal time-stepping strategy enabling approximation even of the non-steadyﬂow;
ANSI C programming language for the code, which was optimized by thecomputer algebra program Maple;
visualization and mesh deformation modules.We shall see in this paper below that our computational results were veriﬁed bymany actual measurements with a relative error 0–0.5% for
and 0.5%–10% for
s
,see Section 3. Then from several experiments we could suggest an actual new modelintake port; by test-piece measurements our prediction was proven to be of 1% larger
, same
s
and remarkably less intake port volume than the corresponding valuesof an initial, a priori given intake port.2.
Components of the numerical simulation
2.1.
The mathematical model.
The mathematical model consists of the well-known formalization of conservation laws of mass, momenta and energy by the Eulerequations and a thermodynamical formula, and the equation of states (EOS), whichis speciﬁc to the material of the gas. We emphasize that we did not need to use anyturbulence models because numerical simulations based on our mathematical modelhappened to be satisfactory, see Section 3.To formulate the model we need some notations. Let us denote the density, thevelocity, the total energy density (i.e. total energy per unit volume) and pressure of the ﬂowing air by
ρ
,
v
= (
v
1
,v
2
,v
3
)
,
e
,
p
respectively, the time by
t
[0
,t
max
], thepoints in IR
3
by (
x
1
,x
2
,x
3
)
, the ﬂow domain by Ω
IR
3
.