possible. At point B the particles are just in contact with each other and beyond thispoint on further increase in velocity, the particles start moving freely in bed with frequentcollision with each other. Point B is called the
point of fluidization
and the correspondingvelocity is called the
minimum fluidization velocity
. Beyond point B on further increase invelocity the resistance to flow decreases as the particles get separated and becometurbulent, also, there is rapid mixing of particles. Under these conditions the mixture of bed and gas behaves like a fluid and the burning of the fuel in such a state is called
fluidized bed combustion
Basic arrangement of FBC system:
The basic arrangement of FBC system is represented in Fig.It consists of a shell with a distributor plate at its bottom with holes in it. The shellcarries the boiler evaporator tubes which remain immersed in the fluidized bed asshown. Coal of 6 to 13mm size with dolomite or lime stone are fed on the distributor plate.Air is supplied from the bottom of the distributor plate at a velocity more thanminimum velocity of fluidization, therefore, the solid coal will remain freely suspended inthe gas stream on burning. The heat energy released due to combustion is rapidlytransferred at high rates to water in the evaporator tubes and the generated steam istaken out.The sulphur content of coal is converted in SO
on burning. It is mostly absorbedby dolomite; hence, the flue gases leaving the bed are almost free from SO
gas. Themolten ash formed is taken out from the top ass shown. Such a system reduces size of boiler considerably due to high rate of heat transfer.
Advantages of FBC:
Coal used is 2 to 3% of bed volume. Reminder space is occupied by the inertmaterial like sintered ash, fused alumina, sand etc. These materials help incontrolling the bed temperature in the range of 800-1000˚C.
The low temperature of combustion in FBC allows ash to remain soft and lessabrasive.
emissions are much less due to addition of dolomite.
emissions are low since the amount of excess air used is less andtemperatures are maintained are low in FBC in the range of 800-1000˚C