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flurized bed combustion

flurized bed combustion

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Published by shpaly

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Published by: shpaly on Mar 27, 2010
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11/19/2012

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Experiment No. : - 02Title:-Study of Fluidized BedCombustion Boiler Date:-
 
Aim: - Study of Fluidized Bed Combustion boiler.
Objective
:-
Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) systems:
Due to the escalation in oil and gas prices continuously the world over, the power engineers were trying to develop new combustion system with coal as fuel since it isavailable in abundance in India. In the earlier designs of furnaces using Pulverized coalwere required to be operated upon in the temperature range of 1400-1700˚C in order toget higher combustion efficiencies. But, at such higher temperature it forms slag onsuperheater tubes, it evaporates alkali metal in ash and its deposition on heat transfer surfaces causes fouling, corrosion and reduced heat transfer rates. It forms pollutantsNO
x
in large amounts since the temperature maintained are considerably high. Sulphur content in the coal forms SO
2
which in turn forms acids with moisture on condensationof steam. The capital cost for removal of SO
2
from the gas is high. Another problem isthat the furnaces designed for a particular type of coal cannot burn with every other typeof coal with same combustion efficiency and safety.The difficulties experienced by the engineers as enumerated above has led tothe development of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) systems in which any type of coalcould be burnt efficiently in the range of 800-1000˚C. Practically at these lower temperatures the production of pollutant like NO
x
is lower since the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is difficult to occur below the temperature of 1100˚C. Also, itreduces the problem of slag formation.
Principle of operation of Fluidized Bed Combustion system:
Fig shows the simple fluidized bed which has finely divided particles of fuel half filled in the column. At its bottom a distributor plate is fitted through which the air ispassed in upward direction with some low velocity. The pressure drop across thecombustion chamber can be measured with the help of manometer.The velocity of air is increased gradually and the logarithmic plot of pressure dropand velocity is shown in fig.Upto the point A the bed is stable. Between the point A to B the bed is unstableand the particles tend to adjust their position to prevent as little resistance to flow as
10
 
possible. At point B the particles are just in contact with each other and beyond thispoint on further increase in velocity, the particles start moving freely in bed with frequentcollision with each other. Point B is called the
 point of fluidization
and the correspondingvelocity is called the
minimum fluidization velocity 
. Beyond point B on further increase invelocity the resistance to flow decreases as the particles get separated and becometurbulent, also, there is rapid mixing of particles. Under these conditions the mixture of bed and gas behaves like a fluid and the burning of the fuel in such a state is called
fluidized bed combustion
.
Basic arrangement of FBC system:
The basic arrangement of FBC system is represented in Fig.It consists of a shell with a distributor plate at its bottom with holes in it. The shellcarries the boiler evaporator tubes which remain immersed in the fluidized bed asshown. Coal of 6 to 13mm size with dolomite or lime stone are fed on the distributor plate.Air is supplied from the bottom of the distributor plate at a velocity more thanminimum velocity of fluidization, therefore, the solid coal will remain freely suspended inthe gas stream on burning. The heat energy released due to combustion is rapidlytransferred at high rates to water in the evaporator tubes and the generated steam istaken out.The sulphur content of coal is converted in SO
2
on burning. It is mostly absorbedby dolomite; hence, the flue gases leaving the bed are almost free from SO
2
gas. Themolten ash formed is taken out from the top ass shown. Such a system reduces size of boiler considerably due to high rate of heat transfer.
Advantages of FBC:
1.
Coal used is 2 to 3% of bed volume. Reminder space is occupied by the inertmaterial like sintered ash, fused alumina, sand etc. These materials help incontrolling the bed temperature in the range of 800-1000˚C.
2.
The low temperature of combustion in FBC allows ash to remain soft and lessabrasive.
3.
SO
2
emissions are much less due to addition of dolomite.
4.
NO
x
emissions are low since the amount of excess air used is less andtemperatures are maintained are low in FBC in the range of 800-1000˚C
11

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