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Introduction to Game Port Joy Stick

Introduction to Game Port Joy Stick

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Published by Subuh Kurniawan
Introduction to Game Port Joy Stick
Introduction to Game Port Joy Stick

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Published by: Subuh Kurniawan on Mar 28, 2010
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06/15/2010

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http://remocutest.blogspot.com
6.1. Introduction To Game Port/ Joy Stick
 Nowadays the most common analogue joystick type is PC analogue joystick. This joystick model was presented by IBM together with their first IBM PC computer. The joystick is just a basic analogue joystick with two buttons. The original joystick interfacehad circuit for connecting two joysticks, but had only one joystick connector. A specialY-cable was needed if there was need for two joysticks at the same time. Later time somemanufacturers put two connectors to their interface card and some card manufacturersimplemented only one joystick input. Fortunately most of the card nowadays have optionfor two joysticks like the original IBM joystick card.The joystick interface card was designed to be as simple and cheap as possible. The cardconsisted only of bus interface electronics and four monostable multivibrators (all in on558 chip). Those monostable multivibrators were simple timer circuits which put out apulse with width directly proportional to the joystick resistance value. The pulse widthwas then measured using software loop. This has caused anormous amounts of problemsto game programmers when computers have become faster and faster all the time. Onfaster machines, the joystick routine in the software does not read the joystick signalproperly resulting in a timing problems. Some dedicated joystick cards are designed tovary the joystick signal so the software can properly detect the joystick and process thedata.
Joystick construction
 The joystick consists of two potentiometers with variable resistance value between 0Ohm and 100 kohm (in some joysticks up to 150 kohm). The potentiometer resistanceshave the minimum values when the joystick is at the top left position. One end of thepotentiometer is connected to +5V pin and the center pin is connected top the analogueinput of the joystick. The other end of the potentiometer is left not connected toanywhere.There are two commonly used ways how PC analogue joystick stick mechanism isconstructed. Some joystick convert the stick position to linear motion, whcih thenchanges the position of the slider in about 100 kohm linear potentiometer. More popularconstruction is to use normal axial potentiometers and the joystick movement directlyturns those potentiometers. Some joystick used special 100 kohm potentiometer whichcan only turn that 60..90 degrees which joytick can turn. The more common constructionis to use the standard 470 kohm (lin) 270 degree potentiomer and use about one fourth of the scale from the beginning (in this way getting 0..120 kohm value range). Usually thosepotentiometers are normal carbon slider potentimeters which do not last long in intensegaming.
Joystick connector
 
 
http://remocutest.blogspot.com
NO
 
PURPOSE
 1 XY1 (+5v)2 Switch 13 X14 Ground (for switch 1)5 Ground (for switch 2)6 Y17 Switch 28 N.C.9 XY2 (+5v)10 Switch 311 X212 Ground (for switch 3&4) *13 Y214 Switch 415 N.C. *Some I/O cards have implemented only the first joystick functions: X1, Y1, Switch 1 andSwitch 2. Some joystick adapter have +5V output also in pin 8.* Many soundcards have joystick interfaces with midi port function enbedded to the sameconnector. Those midi port impelemtations use pins 12 (midi data output from computer)and 15 (midi data input to computer). The midi cable includes the necessary electronicsfor signal conversion and isolation. That's a nonstandard way of using the pin and it maycause problems in some cases (some functions of the joyticks are not working or soundcard does not even work correctly when certain joyticks are used !). Here is the joystick port pinout used in PC soundcards (Soundblaster, Gravis Ultrasound and many other):
PIN
 
PURPOSE
 1 potentiometer common (Joy A)2 button 1 (Joy A)3 X coordinate potentiometer (Joy A)4 button common (Joy A)5 button common (Joy B)
 
http://remocutest.blogspot.com6 Y coordinate potentiometer (Joy A)7 button 2 (Joy A)8 unused9 potentiometer common (Joy B)10 button 1 (Joy B)11 X coordinate potentiometer (Joy B)12 MIDI TXD (transmit) (computer -> midi)13 Y coordinate potentiometer (Joy B)14 button 2 (Joy B)15 MIDI RXD (midi -> computer)
Typical PC joytick circuit diagram and inside picture
 The joystick port is a very simple 8 bit I/0 card which resides in ISA bus I/O address201h. The CPU can read and write to the joystick port I/O address 201h. Writing to thataddress starts joystick postition measurement. Joystick interface only uses the signal that

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