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iit chemistry

iit chemistry

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Published by: Paras Thakur on Mar 28, 2010
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HSN11000Unit 1 – All Topics
 
This document was produced specially for the HSN.uk.net website, and we require that any copies or derivative works attribute the work to us.For more details about the copyright on these notes, please see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
hsn
.uk.net
 
Higher
 
Chemistry
 
Higher Chemistry Unit 1 Energy Matters
- ii - HSN11000
hsn
.uk.net
Contents
Topic 1 Reaction Rates 1
Rates 1Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate 3Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate 3Collision Theory 3Light as a supplier of the Activation Energy 4Potential Energy Diagrams 5Energy Distribution and the Activated Complex 7Activation Energy and the Activated Complex 7The Effect of Catalysts on Reaction Rate 8Types of Catalyst 9How do heterogeneous catalysts work? 10Catalyst poisons 10Enzymes 11
Topic 2 Enthalpy Changes/The Mole 12
Enthalpy Changes 12Potential Energy Diagrams 12Some
H Definitions 13Experimental Determination of Enthalpy Changes 14The Mole The Avogadro Constant 14Using the Avogadro's Constant 15Gas Molar Volume 17Volumes of Gases in Reactions 18Composition of Gas Mixtures 20Summary of Mole Relationships 20
Topic 3 Patterns in the Periodic Table 21
The Periodic Table 21Melting Points and Boiling Points of the Elements 21Metallic Character of the Elements 25Density 26Covalent Radius 26Bond Lengths from Covalent Radii 27Ionisation Enthalpy 28Bonding in Compounds 29Structure and Properties of Compounds 31Compounds and Conduction of Electricity 32Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules 33Intermolecular Forces 34Effects of Hydrogen Bonding 35Dissolving 36Hydrides 38Oxides 39Acid/Base Character of Oxides 39Chlorides 40Summary of Bond Types and Strengths 41
 
Higher Chemistry Unit 1 Energy Matters
Page 1 HSN11000
hsn
.uk.net
Topic 1 – Reaction Rates
Rates
From Standard Grade you should know that:a.
 
reaction rates are dependent on
 
the concentration of the reactants;
 
particle size;
 
temperatureb.
 
catalysts speed up reactions but are not used up during the reactionc.
 
the concentration of reactants in solution is measured in units of moles per litre written as:
mol/litremol/litremol/litremol/litre or mol litremol litremol litremol litre
–1111
or mol lmol lmol lmol l
–1111
 
The rate of a reaction is usually found experimentally by measuring how fast a reactant isused up or how fast a product is formed.This could involve measuring:a.
 
the rate of mass loss or increase in volume if a gas is a product.b.
 
a change in pH if, for example, an acid is being neutralised.c.
 
the rate at which a colour develops or disappears – this is done using an instrumentcalled a colorimeter.Rate is defined as the change in concentration of reactants or products in unit time. We studied the reaction between marble chips (calcium carbonate) and dilutehydrochloric acid.
CaCO
3(s)
+ 2HCl
(aq)
CaCl
2(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
+ CO
2(g)
 
The reaction can be followed in a number of ways:a.
 
by measuring the mass loss of the flask as the carbon dioxide is produced andescapes from the flask.b.
 
by measuring the fall in concentration of acid as the reaction proceeds.c.
 
by collecting and measuring the volume of carbon dioxide produced.The diagrams indicate how this might be done.a b c
Cotton woolMarble chipsBalanceHCl
(aq)
 
pH meterMarble chipsHCl
(aq)
.
 
Marble chipsHCl
(aq)
Gas syringeCO
2(g)
 

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