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basic organic chemistry

basic organic chemistry

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HSN12000Unit 2 – All Topics
 
This document was produced specially for the HSN.uk.net website, and we require that any copies or derivative works attribute the work to us.For more details about the copyright on these notes, please see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
hsn
.uk.net
 
Higher
 
Chemistry
 
Higher Chemistry Unit 2 The World of Carbon
- ii - HSN12000
hsn
.uk.net
Contents
Topic 1 Fuels, Homologous Series and Naming 1
Fuels and Feedstocks 1Petrol 2Petrol Engines 3Pollution due to burning Fuels 4Alternatives to petrol 4The Hydrogen Economy 5Biogas 5The Chemistry of Carbon 6Alkanes 6Alkenes 8Alkynes 10Halogenoalkanes and their Uses 11Ring Compounds 13Aromatic Hydrocarbons 14Alkanols 16Oxidation and reduction a new definition 20Alkanals 20Alkanones 20Distinguishing aldehydes and ketones 21Alkanoic acids 21Ester Formation 23Naming Esters 23Reactions of Esters 23Apparatus for Hydrolysis 24Properties and Uses of Esters 24Percentage Yields 25Polymers and Polymerisation 25Addition Polymerisation 26Condensation Polymerisation 27Thermosetting Plastics 29Recent Polymers 30Degradable Polymers 31
Topic 2 Natural Products 34
Organic Chemistry 34Fats and Oils 34Hardening of oils 35Additives in margarines 35Fats in the body 35The Structure of Fats and Oils 35Hydrolysis 36Soaps 37The Cleaning Action of Soaps and Detergents 37Proteins 38Reactions of amino acids 38Chromatography 40Other Reactions of Proteins 40Amino Acids in Nature 40Types of Protein 41Enzymes 41
 
Higher Chemistry Unit 2 The World of Carbon
Page 1 HSN12000
hsn
.uk.net
Topic 1 – Fuels, Homologous Series and Naming
Fuels and Feedstocks
This topic assumes you know and understand the work done in Standard Grade on Fuelsand Hydrocarbons. Coal, oil and natural gas are finite resources – they are not renewable.From these resources we get carbon compounds that can be used as fuels or feedstocks. A feedstock is simply a chemical from which other chemicals can be manufactured.Sometimes one chemical can be used both as a fuel or a feedstock.eg. the naphtha fraction from crude oil distillation can produce petrol (a fuel) or it can beused as a feedstock to produce ethene and then polythene.The table below shows some of the vast range of consumer products containing carboncompounds.
Textiles
a)
 
 Acrylic 
CH
2
CH CH
2
CH CH
2
CH...CN CN CN...
 
b)
 
Polyester 
OC
2
H
4
OCOCO..
n
 
c)
 
Nylon
n
NHC
6
H
12
NHCOC
4
H
8
CO..
 
Plastics
a)
 
PVC 
CH
2
CH CH
2
CH CH
2
CH...Cl Cl Cl...
 
b)
 
Polypropene 
CH
2
CH CH
2
CH CH
2
CH...CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
...
 
c)
 
Polstyrene 
CH
2
CH CH
2
CH CH
2
CH......
 
Dyes
a)
 
Indigo (for blue denim)
COCOCCNHNH
 
b)
 
 Azodyes eg ‘Para Red’ 
NO
2
NNOH
 
c)
 
 Anthraquinone dyes 
CCOONH
2
NHC
2
H
5
SO
3
H
 
 Agricultural Chemicals
a)
 
Herbicides eg ‘2,4–D’ 
ClClOCH
2
COOH
 
b)
 
Pesticides eg ‘Malathion’ 
CHCO
2
C
2
H
5
CH
2
CO
2
C
2
H
5
(CH
3
O)
2
PS
2
 
Detergents
These containa)
 
 Anionic surfactants 
C
8
H
17
SO
3
Na
+
 _ 
 
b)
 
Non-ionic surfactants 
C
8
H
17
OC
2
H
4
OH
13
 
Cosmetics
a)
 
Perfumes may include ethyl vanillin
CHOOHC
2
H
5
 
b)
 
Lipsticks include coloured compounds 
OCOCOOHOHBrBrBrBr
 These large complex molecules have been synthesised (built up) from small reactivemolecules.In this country, crude oil is our main source of these compounds. Crude oil undergoes aninitial separation by fractional distillation as shown in the flow diagram on the next page.

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