1. They are forced to recall cues that they don’t know well, and they forget them much faster.2. They predict future cues and make association with past cues simultaneously. “If theypredict what is coming, they forget past cues; if they concentrate on the past cues,prediction is impaired.”Novice or intermediate students often try to process language in a word-for-word fashion. If students use other cues such as knowledge of the world, understanding should be facilitated. Teachers canhelp students by drawing the three types of background knowledge.They view that various types of background knowledge are used to comprehend written and oraltexts was proposed by some theorists such as
, they addressed first-language readingcomprehension had a strong influence on second language theories about the nature of listening andreading process. Readers select elements of the text rather than use all the visual cues (reduction of uncertainty) Reading is a psycholinguistic guessing game (
). The ability to anticipate which hasnot been seen, is vital in reading. Readers sample the textual cues, use redundancies, and formulate theirhypotheses about what the text is going to say. The sampling process helps readers confirm o reject thehypotheses as they process the information in the text (Barnett). Readers don’t process words; they work onthe semantic or logical relations of the material. Top down theories of comprehension are replaced inpopularity by more interactive models of reading, which suggest that comprehension involves an interactiveprocess between the reader and the text that moves in a cyclical way.
Schema theory: Using background knowledge to enhance the language-comprehension process
Carrell & Eisterhold
) Any given text doesn’t carry meaning itself. It provides direction to listenersor readers can construct meaning from their cognitive structure, called
(the plural of
).Other similar but not quite synonymous are
scripts, plans, goals, frames, expectations, and events chains
.Rumelhart defines a schema as an abstract representation of a generic concept for an object, eventor situation. For example, the individual abstract concept “
”, may be altered by adjectives like elegantor squalid. Cultural differences also alter the abstract representation for a concept. Misunderstandinghappens when we find the wrong schema for a given concept.When a schema represents a whole situation, a chain of stereotypic events or features is called upin mind in association with the situation. Schank & Abelson defined the term “
” as a structure thatdescribes in a predetermined fashion, appropriate sequences of events in a particular context.
refers to the selection of a particular form of a schema as “
”. Comprehendinga story depends on the schema that is instantiated as the listener who needs to construct a correspondencebetween the schema he had activated and the actual information. If both sources match, the message isunderstood. Comprehension involves fitting the meaning of the message to the schema in mind. Personalhistory, interests, preconceived ideas, and cultural background influence “Interpretation”.Schema theorists describe an interactive model of comprehension. They posit two modes:
bottom-up and top-down processing
Carrell and Eisterhold
differ these two operations in the type of informationused in comprehending the message and the way that information enters to the system. Schemata areorganized hierarchically: most abstract schemata at the top, and most specific at the bottom.
: The message is interpreted by paying attention to specific details, andattempting to instantiate the fitting lower-level schema for the incoming data. (
Data-driven moving from