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MY SPEECH

MY SPEECH

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Published by Nur Hidayah

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Published by: Nur Hidayah on Mar 28, 2010
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05/24/2012

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MYSPEECH
UNDERSTANDING PARKINSON’S DISEASE
INTRODUCTION
Mdm. Hjh Begum binti Ibrahim & my fellow classmates.Assalammualaikum w.b.t and a very good morning.Muhammad Ali. By looking at his picture and his name, I’m sure all of you know him. Muhammad Ali is the most recognizable face in the world.Muhammad Ali, who was a championship boxer, was considered as one of the best fighters of all time. Unfortunately, as is plain for the entire world tosee, Muhammad Ali is sick. He can barely speak; he can barely walk withoutassistance; his hands tremble and shake. It’s almost painful to juxtaposeMuhammad Ali’s current state with that of his “float like a butterfly, sting likea bee”. Guess, what was happening to this man. He has Parkinson’ssyndrome, a neurological condition that affects motor and speech control.According to the book Understanding Parkinson’s disease by RichardRosenbaum,
Kampavata
which in Sanskrit means “tremor and lack of muscular movementis another name for Parkinson’s disease. Thesymptoms of 
kampavata
are slow movement, drooling, reptilians stare,tremor, constant somnolence, rigidity and dementia. The question is, doParkinson’s disease can be cure? How it will be cure? Today, I’m standinghere to answer your questions. I’m here because I want to share with youabout the medication for Parkinson’s disease using drugs therapies which arelevodopa, dopamine agonist and enzyme inhibitors. Let’s start with levodopafirst.
1: LEVODOPA
As define by neurology health and cares, one of the drugs that use inthe medication of Parkinson is levodopa (L-dopa). Levodopa which replaces
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MYSPEECH
UNDERSTANDING PARKINSON’S DISEASEthe dopamine is the single most effective treatment for the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. It is a building block in the process that brain cells useto manufacture dopamine. L-dopa therapy usually remains effective for fiveyears or longer. Levodopa is so effective that some people may forget theyhave Parkinson’s. But levodopa is not a cure. According to George Cotzias,dopamine in the blood does not get into the brain. The levodopa must be usewith carbidopa. Carbidopa does not enter the brain, blocks the enzyme thatconverts levodopa into dopamine in other parts of the body. By restrictingthe release of dopamine in the stomach, carbidopa greatly decrease theunpleasant side effects associated with levodopa alone.Everything has pro and contra. Although L-dopa is so effective, itcomes with side effects. Nausea and vomiting appear when the dose of carbidopa is not large enough to control these side effects. Nausea andvomiting effects can be reducing by taking drug with a light meal or snack.Meanwhile, involuntary movements (dyskinesias) such as tics, twisting andrestlessness effect can only are controlled by lowering the dose of levodopaor, doing the surgery in some cases.
2: DOPAMINE AGONISTS
Besides using levodopa as a drug theraphy, there is other way to curethe Parkinson’s disease which is dopamine agonists. Dopamine agonists isthe chemicals that mimic the role of dopamine in the brain are commonlyused alone to treat early Parkinson’s disease or using together with levodopato treat advanced Parkinson’s disease. This kind of treatment imitates theaction of dopamine in the brain and cause nerve cells to react as if dopaminewere present. There are four types’ dopamine agonists that are available in themedication of Parkinson’s disease. The four dopamine agonists are
Pramipexole, Ropinirole
 ,
Bromocriptine,
and also
Pergolide.
 
Pramipexole
and
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MYSPEECH
UNDERSTANDING PARKINSON’S DISEASE
Ropinirole
are non-ergot dopamine agonists meanwhile
Bromocriptine
and
 pergolide
are ergot-derived dopamine agonists.
Pramipexole
and
Ropinirole
may be used as a “first-line” treatment, asa main treatment, particularly for people with young onset. At first, patientswill fall asleep while driving and it can produce daytime sleepiness whentaking one of these drugs. Meanwhile,
Bromocriptine
and
 pergolide
cancause fibrotic changes in the lungs after prolonged use but these symptomsare reversible if the drug is stopped. Besides, it also can cause a condition inthe lower legs that makes Parkinson’s patients red, hot and painful.
3: ENZYMES INHIBITORS
Now we already know two types of drug that can help in themedication of Parkinson’s disease. I’m sure you are wondering what is thelast drug that been using in medication of Parkinson’s disease. There are twotypes of enzymes inhibitor which are monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitorand catechol-O methyltransferase (COMT). This 2 enzymes are compoundsthat impair the breakdown of dopamine and thus increase the amount of dopamine that is available to neurons. The MAO-B inhibitors, such asselegiline and rasagiline, prevent the enzyme MAO-B from breaking downdopamine in the brain itself. Selegiline may delay the need for strongerdrugs, possibly by exerting a mild counter effect or by protecting neuronsfrom damage. Rasagiline is a newer medication that is more selective, morepotent, and has less action outside the brain, thus decreased peripheral sideeffects. The COMT is blocked or inhibited, for example, more levodopa canreach the brain’s motor control system. The COMT inhibitor particularlyhelpful for people with motor fluctuations. COMT inhibitors increase theamount of levodopa entering the brain and prolong its effects. Entacapone(brand name Stalevo) is a new dopamine replacement therapy that
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