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8819314 Manufacturing Tolerances

8819314 Manufacturing Tolerances

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Published by: lakshmanakumarr on Mar 28, 2010
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12/08/2012

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AE 510 Manufacturing tolerances
Tolerances in ManufacturingIntroduction:
Geometric tolerance is defined as the total amount that thedimension of a manufactured part can vary. With increasing accuracy orless variation in the dimension, the labor and machinery required tomanufacture a part is more cost intensive. Any manufacturer should havea thorough knowledge of the tolerances to increase the quality andreliability of a manufactured part with the least expense possible. Infact, precision is engineered selectively. For instance, motorcycleparts are not manufactured with accuracies required in jet engines.Moreover, a knowledge of tolerances is essential for manufacturing withgood quality and least material wastage. Few important principles thatare followed in manufacturing products with tolerances are discussedbriefly.
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AE 510 Manufacturing tolerances
Tolerance fits between mating parts:
Manufactured parts are characterized by a basic size, which isused for the general identification and the actual size which is theactual measured size of a manufactured part.The difference between the largest allowable shaft size and thesmallest hole diameter is termed as the allowance. The quality of thefit is characterized by the allowance value.Clearance fit:An internal member that fits into an external part always hasspace or clearance between the parts. This fit is illustrated below:Interference fit:The internal member is always larger than the external member.This requires the internal member to be forced into the externalmember. This fit is illustrated below:
Figure 1: Interference fit (Ref.2)
It is seen that the lowest possible diameter of the shaft is higherthan the highest possible diameter of the hole. This would clearlyresult in an interference fit.transition fit:This fit implies either an interference fit or a clearance fitcondition.
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AE 510 Manufacturing tolerances
Figure 2: Transition fit (Ref.2)
It is noticed that a clearance fit is possible with the smallestshaft size and largest hole, whereas an interference fit results withthe largest shaft size and the smallest hole.Line fit:Certain limits are specified so that a clearance or surfacecontact results when mating parts are assembled.
Form tolerances:
Straightness:This form of tolerance specifies a tolerance zone for all thepoints on an element about a straight axis line.
Figure 3: Straightness (Ref.2)
In the model shown above, it is required for the central axial line tobe within a tolerance zone of 0.04 inches.Flatness:This refers to a tolerance characterized by two parallel planeswithin which an elemental surface lies.
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