Covenant Theological Seminary
Dr. C. John Collins
comparison. Isaiah does not mean that this person is more disfigured than any other person, but that he is so disfigured that he hardly appears human [John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 40-66 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998), 373).
itq auma,sont ai (astonish), and the NRS translates itstartle. As Deilizsch argues, this Hebrew verb always takes
an accusative or direct object referring to blood or water or whatever was used for sprinkling, never the thing or
person sprinkled like an altar. Moreover, this line of Hebrew poetry runs parallel with the next line; together, they
communicate the amazement the nations and their rulers will have before the Servant. Without this word, we loose
nothing of his priestly sacrificial work communicated so clearly later in the poem.
accompanied by the perfect here expresses a rhetorical question
expecting a denial (Wilhelm Gesenius, Gesenius\u2019 Hebrew Grammar; Ed. E. Kautzsch [Oxford: Clarendon Press,
refers to a \u201csucking one,\u201d and can refer
either to a human or a plant (see BDB 413), the parallelism supports the latter. See Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah, 374,
n. 59; and Motyer who suggests that the image of the plant recalls the Messiah as the \u201choly seed\u201d of 6:13 (The
choose to translate this as \u201cthat,\u201d which makes better sense of the cohortative. Jo\u00fcon and Muraoka explain this as an indirect cohortative \u201cfor us to remark him\u201d (A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew [SubBi 27; Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 2006], \u00a7116c).
like the lamb led to the slaughter,
and like a ewe before its shearers [is] silent,
he also did not open his mouth.
Delitzsch notes, \u201cThere were no stronger expressions to be found in the language, to denote a violent and painful
death\u201d [F. Delitszsch, Commentary on the Old Testament: Isaiah (Hendrickson Publishers: Peabody, MA, 1996. vol
7), 509]. While the wordp i e rc e d may be unnecessarily evocative of crucifixion, Isaiah\u2019s point is that the Servant
was fatally wounded, which matches the parallel linecrushed. In context, the translationwounded is insufficient.
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