(a). The numbers 90, 99, 100, and 1000 in RV:
In Appendix I, I have tabulated those numbersthat can be expressed as a simple summation and have a preference for 1, 7, 10, 33, 90, 99, 100,and 1000, in the compound number (also see, Appendix III). The use of certain numbers like 99(or 90) forts of
ambara, 99 arms, 99 rivers, 99
’s horses etc. is interesting. These numbersoccur many times in the Vedas. The preference for number 9 (and hence, 99 or 90), can beunderstood from the mathematical aspect of this particular number which is easier to handle because it is ‘10 – 1’
. And also it is 3 x 3, where 3 is considered by the Vedic
to be themost sacred among the single digit numerals. In addition, it is also worth noting that allcombination of 3 like 6 (2 x 3); 33 (30 + 3); 90 (3 x 30) and 99 (3 x 33) are all very well used.In the Vedas, the number 10 or 100 or 1000 are no doubt used to ‘mean many’, butat the same time the basic unit is retained as 10 / 100 / 1000 to illustrate the fullness of whatever is in view. Hence, these numbers mean ordinal perfection and order. It is perhaps, with this viewthat the number of books of RV is kept at 10 (this of course must have taken place at a muchlater time) and the normal duration of human life is recognized to be 100 years at many places inRV. The same literary trend continued in the later
ic legends where people were oftenquoted to have meditated for 100 or 1000 years, although the
s (also) recognize thatnormal duration of human life is not more than100 years.In view of what is said above, the number 99 can be understood as ‘one short of perfection’
s have dramatized this aspect in an interesting way linking Indra to the
sacrifices (AMSs) where the 100
one in some of the cases was interrupted byIndra
restricting the total to 99
. A similar disruption of the 100 years of penance of Ditiduring the 99
year can also be linked to a similar trend (also, see the next section). It is said that
had performed 3 AMSs;
3; Janamejaya 3;
, the hero of
Multiplication involving 9 and 11 can very easily be performed by the methods mentioned in the books of the “so-called” (modern) Vedic Mathematics. No other number is so magical as 9. Modern numerology also recognizes thisaspect in the form of fadic number, (which is the sum of the individual numbers in the compound number); andmultiplication of 9 with any number results in a number whose fadic number is always 9. The fadic number of 99 is18, which reduces further to 9. Note that both 18 and 9 are favored in later
s (see Murthy, 2003(a)).
In Rmn.(VII.10.10-12), R
a cuts off his 9 (out of a total of 10) heads to please
‹iva. Similarly i
n Chinesemythology, the archer Yi shoots down 9 of the 10 (too hot) Suns (cf. Witzel, 2004).
Witzel is of the opinion that the numeral 9 is due to old north Asian shamanic ideas; while the numeral 7 is atypical near Eastern number! (7 is already found in the Indus civilization on seals etc.) in RV, we have both: oldnorthern origins & near Eastern/Indus influences. (The reader may also refer to: Blazek, 2001). Note that even the“primitive” Stone Age Andamanese have a complex way of counting things-not their bare numbers, which aredifferent from this system: the system goes up to 31 and then starts again ; thus 1X31, 2x31 etc. (Witzel, 2002).
This point is emphasized in a mystic fashion in TS.V.5.2.5-7; VII.1.5.2-3 where (3 x 333) + 1 is shown to be equalto 1000.
This can be seen as a sign of the decreasing importance of Indra in the post Vedic mythology.
The reader may refer to, Dikshitar (1951), Bg.P, Garrett, 1999 and Debroy & Debroy for more details.
The linking of Indra to AMS might be due to the Vedic myth connecting him to
and thehorse head (see, Griffith’s foot note for RV.I.84.13). The Vedic epithet “
” (lord of hundred powers) of Indra, had become a title to be conferred on those who had performed 100 AMSs and it had become a minimumqualification to the post of Indra.