society (Barsade 2002, Barsade et al. 2003,Ciarrochi et al. 2006, Elias et al. 1997, Izard2002, Matthews et al. 2007).In this review, we describe research on EIcovering a roughly 18-year span from 1990to early 2007. During that time, work on thetopic expanded from a few articles and book chapters to an active research area. Over thesame period, research continued in emotion,intelligence,andtheirinteraction,asreﬂectedin
Annual Review of Psychology
coverage (a par-tial list includes Cacioppo & Gardner 1999,Eisenberg 2000, Lubinski 2000, Oatley & Jenkins 1992, Phelps 2006, Rosenbaum et al.2001, Sternberg & Kaufman 1998, Voss & Wiley 1995). EI is related to both emotionand intelligence, but it also is distinct fromthem.Our aim has been to collect what rep-resents, to us, some of the best and mostpromising research in the EI ﬁeld. A reviewof such research can help deﬁne EI, indi-cate its relation to other concepts, and illus-trate its inﬂuence on practical outcomes. Inthe opening of our review, we provide a con-text for the present-day ﬁeld, examine usesof the term “emotional intelligence,” and de-scribe the scope of research in the area. Ourchallenge in covering the ﬁeld is considerablebecause the term “emotional intelligence” isused in many different ways. One of our goalsis to identify the core elements of EI and itsstudy.
THE SCOPE OF EMOTIONALINTELLIGENCE What Is Emotional Intelligence?
The term “emotional intelligence” has beenemployed on an occasional basis at least sincethe mid-twentieth century. Literary accountsof Jane Austen’s
Pride and Prejudice
refer to variouscharacterspossessingthisquality(VanGhent 1953, p. 106–107). Scientiﬁc refer-ences date to the 1960s. For example, emo-tional intelligence had been mentioned in re-lation to psychotherapy treatments (Leuner
amental ability (or setof mental abilities)that permit therecognition,learning, memory for, and capacity toreason about aparticular form of information, such as verbal information
theinterconnected termsand ideas thatscientists use tounderstand theirﬁeld of study.Scientists’ ideas arecharacterized asconnected with oneanother in logicalfashion, and as tiedto real-worldphenomena, in anintegrated,meaningful way
1966) and to promoting personal and socialimprovement more generally (Beasley 1987,Payne 1986).During the 1980s, psychologists expresseda renewed openness to the idea of multipleintelligences(Gardner1983,Sternberg1985).Simultaneously, research on emotion and onhow emotions and cognition interacted wereon the ascendancy (for historical background,see Matthews et al. 2002, Mayer 2000, Mayeret al. 2000a, Oatley 2004). It was amid suchlively inquiry that scientiﬁc articles on EI ﬁrstbegan to appear (Mayer et al. 1990, Salovey & Mayer 1990).Interest in studying EI grew dramatically throughoutthelate1990s,propelledbyapop-ularizationofthetopic(Goleman1995).Withthe term’s newly found cachet, and with theexcitement surrounding the identiﬁcation of a potential new intelligence, many used theterm—but often in markedly different ways(Bar-On 1997, Elias et al. 1997, Goleman1995, Mayer & Salovey 1993, Picard 1997).So, what does the term “emotional intelli-gence” really mean?
Can Emotional Intelligence BeConceptualized Validly?
By2007,thewidediversityofthoseinterestedinEIwasmatchedbythewidediversityintheconceptions of EI they employed. Some re-searchers deﬁned EI as an ability to reasonabout emotion; others equated the concept with a list of traits such as achievement moti- vation, ﬂexibility, happiness, and self-regard.Still others found the addition of such traits, which seemed to be ad hoc, to be troubling,and wondered whether a theoretically soundconceptualization of EI could be identiﬁed(Locke 2005).
The conceptual network of psychologi-cal concepts.
A scientiﬁc concept such asEI arises in the context of associated scien-tiﬁc terms and their meanings. Cronbach & Meehl (1955) referred to this context as anomological network—a system of meanings
Emotional Intelligence 509
A n n u . R e v . P s y c h o l . 2 0 0 8 . 5 9 : 5 0 7 - 5 3 6 . D o w n l o a d e d f r o m a r j o u r n a l s . a n n u a l r e v i e w s . o r g b y U n i v e r s i t e d e M o n t r e a l o n 0 4 / 0 4 / 0 8 . F o r p e r s o n a l u s e o n l y .