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AP Bio Ch 18-20 Take Home Final

AP Bio Ch 18-20 Take Home Final

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12/14/2012

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AP Biology Chapter 18-20 Questions
Multiple Choice
 Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 ____1.
What does the operon model attempt to explain?
a.
the coordinated control of gene expression in bacteria
 b.
 bacterial resistance to antibiotics
c.
how genes move between homologous regions of DNA
d.
the mechanism of viral attachment to a host cell
e.
horizontal transmission of plant viruses
 ____2.
The tryptophan operon is a repressible operon that is
a.
 permanently turned on.
 b.
turned on only when tryptophan is present in the growth medium.
c.
turned off only when glucose is present in the growth medium.
d.
turned on only when glucose is present in the growth medium.
e.
turned off whenever tryptophan is added to the growth medium.
 ____3.
This protein is produced by a regulatory gene:
a.
operon
 b.
inducer 
c.
 promoter 
d.
repressor 
e.
corepressor 
 ____4.
When this is taken up by the cell, it binds to the repressor so that the repressor no longer binds to theoperator:
a.
operon
 b.
inducer 
c.
 promoter 
d.
repressor 
e.
corepressor 
 ____5.
A mutation that inactivates the regulatory gene of a repressible operon in an
 E. coli
cell would resultin
a.
continuous transcription of the structural gene controlled by that regulator.
 b.
complete inhibition of transcription of the structural gene controlled by thatregulator.
c.
irreversible binding of the repressor to the operator.
d.
inactivation of RNA polymerase by alteration of its active site.
e.
continuous translation of the mRNA because of alteration of its structure.
 ____6.
The lactose operon is likely to be transcribed when
a.
there is more glucose in the cell than lactose.
 b.
the cyclic AMP levels are low.
c.
there is glucose but no lactose in the cell.
d.
the cyclic AMP and lactose levels are both high within the cell.
e.
the cAMP level is high and the lactose level is low.
 ____7.
How does active CAP induce expression of the genes of the lactose operon?
 
a.
It terminates production of repressor molecules.
 b.
It degrades the substrate allolactose.
c.
It stimulates splicing of the encoded genes.
d.
It stimulates the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter.
e.
It binds steroid hormones and controls translation.
Use the following scenario to answer the following questions.
Suppose an experimenter becomes proficient with a technique that allows her to move DNAsequences within a prokaryotic genome.
 ____8.
If she moves the promoter for the lac operon to the region between the beta galactosidase gene andthe permease gene, which of the following would be likely?
a.
Three structural genes will no longer be expressed.
 b.
RNA polymerase will no longer transcribe permease.
c.
The operon will no longer be inducible.
d.
Beta galactosidase will be produced.
e.
The cell will continue to metabolize but more slowly.
 ____9.
If she moves the operator to the far end of the operon (past the transacetylase gene), which of thefollowing would likely occur when the cell is exposed to lactose?
a.
The inducer will no longer bind to the repressor.
 b.
The repressor will no longer bind to the operator.
c.
The operon will never be transcribed.
d.
The structural genes will be transcribed continuously.
e.
The repressor protein will no longer be produced.
 ____10.
If she moves the repressor gene (lac I), along with its promoter, to a position at some severalthousand base pairs away from its normal position, which will you expect to occur?
a.
The repressor will no longer be made.
 b.
The repressor will no longer bind to the operator.
c.
The repressor will no longer bind to the inducer.
d.
The lac operon will be expressed continuously.
e.
The lac operon will function normally.
 ____11.
Genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, and histone acetylation are all examples of 
a.
genetic mutation.
 b.
chromosomal rearrangements.
c.
karyotypes.
d.
epigenetic phenomena.
e.
translocation.
 ____12.
Approximately what proportion of the DNA in the human genome codes for proteins or functionalRNA?
a.
83%
 b.
46%
c.
32%
d.
13%
e.
1.5%
 ____13.
In eukaryotes, transcription is generally associated with
 
a.
euchromatin only.
 b.
heterochromatin only.
c.
very tightly packed DNA only.
d.
highly methylated DNA only.
e.
 both euchromatin and histone acetylation.
 ____14.
This binds to a site in the DNA far from the promoter to stimulate transcription:
a.
enhancer 
 b.
 promoter 
c.
activator 
d.
repressor 
e.
terminator 
 ____15.
Gene expression might be altered at the level of post-transcriptional processing in eukaryotes rather than prokaryotes because of which of the following?
a.
Eukaryotic mRNAs get 5' caps and 3' tails.
 b.
Prokaryotic genes are expressed as mRNA, which is more stable in the cell.
c.
Eukaryotic exons may be spliced in alternative patterns.
d.
Prokaryotes use ribosomes of different structure and size.
e.
Eukaryotic coded polypeptides often require cleaving of signal sequences beforelocalization.
 ____16.
Which of the following is most likely to have a small protein called ubiquitin attached to it?
a.
a cyclin that usually acts in G1, now that the cell is in G2
 b.
a cell surface protein that requires transport from the ER 
c.
an mRNA that is leaving the nucleus to be translated
d.
a regulatory protein that requires sugar residues to be attached
e.
an mRNA produced by an egg cell that will be retained until after fertilization
 ____17.
The process of cellular differentiation is a direct result of 
a.
differential gene expression.
 b.
morphogenesis.
c.
cell division.
d.
apoptosis.
e.
differences in cellular genomes.
 ____18.
A cell that remains entirely flexible in its developmental possibilities is said to be
a.
differentiated.
 b.
determined.
c.
totipotent.
d.
genomically equivalent.
e.
epigenetic.
 ____19.
Differentiation of cells is not easily reversible because it involves
a.
changes in the nucleotide sequence of genes within the genome.
 b.
changes in chromatin structure that make certain regions of the genome moreaccessible.
c.
chemical modifications of histones and DNA methylation.
d.
frameshift mutations and inversions.
e.
excision of some coding sequences.
 ____20.
Mutations in these genes lead to transformations in the identity of entire body parts:

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