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Chapter 28

Chapter 28

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Published by mchiu61593
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley

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Published by: mchiu61593 on Mar 29, 2010
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Michael ChiuAP US HistoryPeriod 23/14/10
Outline of Chapter 28:
America in a World at War
War on Two Fronts
-During World War II, there was a unity of opinion about the conflict – this was tested duringthe first months of 1942; Allies were falling to Japan – U.S. needed to avoid defeat
Containing the Japanese
-U.S. planned two offensives to try to fight Japan: One, under the command of 
GeneralDouglas MacArthur
, would move up from Australia, through New Guinea, and eventually back to the Philippines – The other offensive, under 
Admiral Chester Nimitz
, would movewest from Hawaii toward major Japanese island outposts in the central Pacific-Allies achieved first important victory in the
Battle of Coral Sea
, northwest of Australia; in1942- American forces turned back the Japanese fleet-Another more important turning point northwest of Hawaii was the enormous battle near 
Midway Island
in 1942, where the American navy destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers – regained control of the central Pacific for the United States-Americans took the offensive for the first time several months later in 1942 in 3 of thesouthern Solomon Islands to the east of New Guinea: Gavutu, Tulagi, and Guadalcanal -terrible ferocity developed at Guadalcanal and inflicted heavy losses to both sides – at theend the Japanese were forced to abandon the island-By 1943, the initiative in the southern and central Pacific had shifted to the United States
Holding Off the Germans
-The U.S. had a less control in the European war-fighting with exiled “Free French” in thewest and trying to conciliate the Soviet Union, its new ally-Army chief of staff,
General George C. Marshall
, supported a major Allied invasion of France across the English Channel in the spring of 1943 – plan faced challenges from Allies-the Soviet Union, which was facing the majority of the German war effort, wanted theAllied invasion to happen at the earliest time-British wanted first to launch series of allied offensives around edges of Nazi empire before-Roosevelt was torn but ultimately supported the British plan-Under General Erwin Rommel, the British opened counteroffensive against Nazi forces in North Africa and forced Germans to retreat from Egypt-Germans threw full weight of forces in African against inexperienced Americans andinflicted a serious defeat at the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia-
General George S. Patton
launched an effective counteroffensive – drove last of Germansfrom African in May 1943-The North Africa campaign contributed to postponement of the planned May 1943 invasionof France – produced complaints from the Soviet Union-However, Soviet collapse seemed unlikely, because the Red Army had held off a major German assault at Stalingrad during the winter of 1942-1943
America and the Holocaust
-By 1942 news of Holocaust (Nazi campaign to exterminate European Jews) prompting public cries to end killing, but US govt resisted calls for military aid + officials at the StateDept deliberately refused to let Jews enter US
The American People In WartimeProsperity
-WWII ended Great Depression problems of unemployment, deflation, production b/c of wartime economic expansion + massive govt spending (federal budget grew from 1939 $9 billion to 1945 $100 billion)
The War and the West
-West shared disproportionally in massive govt capital investments;-Businessman Henry Kaiser steered federal funds to make Pacific Coast major industrialcenter for shipbuilding, aircraft; launching stage for Japanese war 
Labor and the War
-Labor shortage caused by military recruitment; unemployed from Depression worked, butalso women + other previously unused groups entered workforce-Union membership increased; new govt limits on wage increases +“no-strike” promise, inreturn govt allowed all new workers to automatically join unions-Govt+ public sought to reduce inflation + guarantee production w/o disruption
Stabilizing Boom
-1942 Congress passed Anti-Inflation Act which allowed Pres to freeze prices and wages, setrations; enforced by the Office of Price Administration-Govt spent 2X more $ btwn 1941-1945 than it had during whole existence; raised $ thru bond sales, Revenue Act of 1942 created new high tax brackets
Mobilizing Production
-1942 War Production Board created to organize mobilization effort but was largely unableto direct military purchases + include small businesses; program later replaced by WhiteHouse Office of War Mobilization-Nevertheless, US economy met all war needs; new factories were built, entire rubber industry created. By 1944 output 2X that of all Axis nations combined
Wartime Science and Technology
-Govt stimulated new military technologies by funneling massive funds to National DefenseResearch Committee-Originally Germany (w/ sophisticated tanks + submarines) and Japan (w/ strong naval-air  power) technologically ahead of Allies; US, however, had experience w/ mass production inauto industry and was able to convert many of these plants to produce armaments-Allied advances in radar + sonar beyond Axis capabilities helped limit effectiveness of U-Boats in Atlantic; Allies developed more effective anti-aircraft tech and produced largeamount of powerful 4-engine aircraft (British Lancaster + US B17) able to attack militaryforces + industrial centers-Greatest Allied advantage found in intelligence gathering—British Ultra project able to break German “Enigma” code and intercept info on enemy movements; American Magicoperation broke Japanese “Purple” code
African-Americans and the War
-Blacks wanted to use war as means of improving own conditions. A Philip Roth (head of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car porters) wanted all companies w/ war contracts to integratework force
-Fearing black workers strike, FDR created Fair Employment Practices Commission toinvestigate labor discrimination. Later, Congress of Racial equality combated discriminationin society at large using popular resistance-War saw migration of blacks from rural South to industrial cities of North in greater numbers than those found of first Great Migration during WWI
Native Americans and the War
-Some Native Americans served in military (some as famous “Code Talkers”), many othersleft reservations seeking work in war industries
Mexican-American War Workers
-War labor shortages lead to large Mex immigration of braceros (contract laborers); ethnictensions from growing immigrant neighborhoods w/ existing white communities led to“Zoot-Suit Riots” in Los Angeles in 1943
Women and Children of War
-Large number of women entered roles they were previously excluded from-Many women worked in factories to replace men who had entered military, but someinequality existed in what jobs they could hold in factories-Most women took service-sector jobs in growing govt bureaucracies; limited others workedin “male” heavy-industry (famous Rosie the Riveter image)-Over 1/3 of teenagers took jobs during war; crime rate also rose during war 
Wartime Life and Culture
-Increased prosperity from war led to marked rise in theater and movie attendance, magazineand news circulation, hotel, casino, dance hall visits-War effort largely seen as means of protecting material comfort + consumer choice of “home”; visions of home and future women romanticized by troops
The Internment of Japanese Americans
-WWII did not largely see restrictions of civil liberties + growth of hatred toward fringegroups as during WWI; little ethnic tension in part due to propaganda attacking enemy’s political system but not people-Glaring exception in treatment of Japanese Americans who were painted as scheming +cruel (re-enforced by Pearl Harbor); white Eur groups largely accepted by now, butassimilated Japs faced prejudice + viewed as “foreign”-Conspiracy theories of Jap-Americans aiding in Pearl Harbor attacks led govt + military tosee them as a threat; 1942 Roosevelt created War Relocation Authority to move Japanesecitizens to “relocation camps” for monitoring-Starting 1943 condition began to improve as some Japs allowed to got o college or take jobson East Coast; although 1944 Supreme Court case Korematsu v U.S. ruled relocationconstitutional, by that time most of internees had been allowed to leave camps
Chinese Americans and the War
-US war alliance w/ China helped Chinese Americans advance legal + social position—1943Congress repealed Chinese Exclusion acts-Many Chinese took jobs in industry or were drafted into the military
The Retreat from Reform
-FDR wanted to shift priority from reform to war effort and victory-With massive unemployment no longer an issue + Republican gains, Congress dismantledrelief programs and other New Deal programs

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