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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Published by mchiu61593
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley

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Published by: mchiu61593 on Mar 29, 2010
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12/12/2013

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Michael ChiuAP US HistoryPeriod 29/6/09
Outline of Chapter 1:
The Meeting of Cultures
America Before Columbus
-at first, early settlers of America formed small nomadic groups, hunting and fishing toobtain food-gradually, stable civilizations were formed, many of substantial sizes and variety
The Civilizations of the South
-the greatest of these civilizations were in South America and in Mexico-these civilizations developed complex political systems and large networks of pavedroads that unified the civilization
the Incas in Peru-The Mayas created a written language, a numerical system, an accurate calendar, and anadvanced agricultural system-they were eventually succeeded by the Aztecs, a nomadicwarrior tribe from the North-The Aztecs formed elaborate administrative, educational, and medical systems-their religion required human sacrifice-the Aztec capital was Tenochtitlan, with one of the largest populations of any city duringthe time, with impressive buildings
The Civilizations of the North
-civilizations in the North were not as elaborate as those in the South-societies were mainly based on fishing, gathering, fishing or a combination of the 3-some communities were only agricultural-the most elaborate were in the Southwest, where irrigation systems were built-built pueblos-most tribes were agricultural-Historians disagree with each other mainly because they interpret the events thatoccurred in the past differently-events in the present can influence how a historian analyzes history-there is no truth; history is based on different interpretations of events-in the Northeastern tribes, land was exploited quickly and then left-man tribes were linked by linguistic roots-different language groups were: theAlgonquin tribes, the Iroquois Confederation, and the Muskogean-when Europeans arrived and threatened the way of life for the Natives, they thought of themselves as individual tribes rather than an “Indian nation.”
Tribal Cultures
-before the Europeans arrived in America, the Native Americans were having agriculturalrevolution-tribes developing new ways to get food, clothing and shelter -jobs were assigned based on gender; different tribes and cultures gave each gender different job Ex. The Iroquois gave women the job of tending fields, while men would beinvolved in hunting, warfare, and clearing land
 
-Because women were often left alone while men went to battle, they controlled thesocial and economic organization of the settlements and played powerful roles withinfamilies
Europe Looks Westward
-most Europeans were unaware of the existence of the Americas before the 15
th
century-during the middle ages, Europe was not an adventurous nation
Commerce and Nationalism
-One reason Europeans began to look toward new lands was the huge population increase-rich people began to want to trade with more people, so advances in navigation andshipbuilding made long-distance sea travel more possible-Also, new governments arose and these monarchs became more eager to enhance thecommercial growth of their nations-the first nation to attempt to travel to the east were the Portuguese-their success as amaritime power in the fifteenth century was due a lot to the work of Prince Henry the Navigator, who was interested in exploring the western coast of Africa to find gold
Christopher Columbus
-Christopher Columbus was born and raised in Italy and most of his sea experience wasfor the Portuguese-He believed that Asia could be reached by traveling east instead of going west-Portugal refused to fund his voyage, so he turned to Spain, the strongest monarchy of Europe, ruled by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella-agreed to the voyage in 1942-Columbus commanded ninety men and three ships, the Nina, the Pinta, and the SantaMaria-left Spain in August 1492 and thought he was sailing straight to Japan-ten weeks later,he saw land and assumed he arrived there but in fact arrived somewhere in the Bahamas-When he got to Cuba, he assumed it was China and went back to Spain to tell of hissuccess-a year later, he went back with a larger expedition, discovering more islands andformed a small but short-lived colony on the island Hispaniola-in 1498, he discovered the mainland and went down the coast of South America-he believed he had explored at least part of the Far East-despite his accomplishments, he was relatively unknown at his death-Columbus was a very religious man and believed his voyages were part of his destiny infulfilling a divine mission – many subsequent explorations were based on religious values-Spain began to devote greater resources and energy to exploration of Columbus-Vasco de Balboa went across the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and saw across the Pacific-Ferdinand Magellan, working for Spain, found the strait that is named after him and theSouthern end of South America- named the Pacific Ocean-died in the Philippines after aconflict with the natives-expedition first to go around the entire globe
The Conquistadores
-At this time, Spain thought as America as not only a barrier but a source of wealth-Claimed for themselves the New World, except for Brazil-In 1518, Hernando Cortes led a small military expedition into Mexico in search of treasure – met strong resistance from the Aztecs and their emperor Montezuma-Cortes and his army had unknowingly spread smallpox to the Aztecs – this decimatedthe Aztecs and made it possible for Cortes to succeed in their second attempt at conquest
 
-Spanish believed the epidemic was vindication of their efforts and believed it was sent by God – “God saw fit to send the Indians smallpox.”-Cortes established a reputation as the most brutal conquistador because of his ruthlesssuppression of the surviving natives-the news that there were riches to be found in Mexico caused a wave of conquistadoresto descend on the mainland in search of a fortune-Francisco Pizarro conquered Peru in 1538 where the Incas lived- his deputy Hernandode Soto was the first white man who went past the Mississippi River -Francisco Coronado traveled to what is now New Mexico in search of gold in 1540-the Spanish warriors dealt with the natives with brutality and greed and almostexterminated entire native populations – this made possible the creation of the vastSpanish empire in the New World
Spanish America
-The history of the Spanish empire in the New World had three different periods of discovery: the age of discovery and exploration starting from Columbus, the age of theconquistadores, and in the 1750’s, when the Ordinances of Discovery banned the most brutal military conquests-the Spanish became the richest nation on Earth because of the vast riches discovered inthe New World-Unlike the conquistadores, most Spanish settlers who went to the New World wanted tocreated a profitable agricultural economy-Ferdinand and Isabella established the requirement that the religion of the new territoriesmust be Catholicism-One type of settlement was a mission, which would try to covert natives to Catholicism-
 Presidios
, military bases, would often be built next to missions to protect them fromhostile natives-After the era of the conquistadores ended in 1540, the missionary impulse would be akey reason for emigration to the New World- Catholicism eventually spread to South andCentral America, as well as Mexico and the South and Southwest of the present U.S.
Northern Outposts
-the first permanent European settlement in the present day U.S. was the Spanish fort St.Augustine established in 1565 in Florida- served as a military outpost-A more substantial colonizing venture occurred in 1598 when Don Juan de Onateclaimed for Spain some of the lands of the Pueblo Indians-Onate distributed
encomiendas
, which allowed settlers to exact labor and tribute fromthe natives in specific areas-Spanish began demanding tribute from Indians-Spanish founded Santa Fe in 1609-Onate harsh treatment led to his removal as governor in 1606-Relations improved between Spanish and Pueblos improved but settlers were stillthreatened by other tribes- colony continued to grow-In 1680, the Pueblos revolted, nearly destroying the colony- lead by a Indian leader named Pope- hundreds of European settlers were killed- captured Santa Fe-Spanish returned 12 years later and crushed a last revolt in 1696-Spanish tried to stop conflicts with the native population in two ways: One, theyintensified their efforts to assimilate the Indians-baptizing Indian children at birth andenforcing observance of Catholic rituals; Second, they allowed Pueblos to own land

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