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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

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Published by mchiu61593
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley

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Published by: mchiu61593 on Mar 29, 2010
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03/28/2010

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Michael ChiuAP US HistoryPeriod 210/1/09
Outline of Chapter 5:
The American Revolution
-Two conflicts occurred simultaneously during the Revolutionary War: the militaryconflict with Britain and the political struggle within America-Military conflict was relatively modest-Americans wondered if they should demand independence from Britain and how tostructure the new nation they had created – first one answered at British surrender atYorktown in 1781-Thomas Paine reflected the opinion of many people
The States United – Defining American War Aims
-Second Continental Congress met after Lexington and Concord – all colonies exceptGeorgia – all agreed on war, but some disagreed on the purpose-Some favored complete independence from Britain, such as the Adams cousins-Another side favored modest reforms in the relationship that would allow reconciliationwith Britain – led by people such as John Dickinson of Pennsylvania-Most tried to find middle ground between two ideas; adopted two different declarations:the first being the “Olive Branch Petition”, which was a last, conciliatory appeal to theking; the second was “Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms” – said that the Americans could either have “unconditional submission to the tyranny of irritated ministers or resistance by force.”-the “Prohibitory Act” blockaded American ports to all overseas trade-Thomas Paine had great success as a revolutionary propagandist in
Common Sense
, animpassioned pamphlet that fired up many Americans – changed outlook on the war 
The Decision for Independence
-Continental congress moved slowly toward final break with England; it declaredAmerican ports open to the ships of all nations except Britain; it recommended to thecolonies that they establish new governments independent of the British Empire-Drafted a formal declaration of independence on July 2, 1776-wrote mostly by Virginiadelegate Thomas Jefferson with help from Benjamin Franklin and John Adams – had two parts; John Locke’s contract theory and crimes of the king –“all men are created equal”
Responses to Independence
-Loyalists were still held loyalty to the king-were called Tories by supporters of war -Colonies began to call themselves states after the Declaration of Independence – eachwas considered a separate and sovereign entity-In 1777, Articles of Confederation were adopted-weak policies
Mobilizing for War
-The Continental Congress began to print paper currency because there was a shortage of money for the war – resulted in inflation; prices rose and value of paper money fell-The American government had to borrow heavily from other nations to finance war -Congress created a Continental Army; chose George Washington as commander in chief -George Washington kept faithfully at his task, despite many difficulties
 
-He received help from foreign military experts such as Marquis de Lafayette and Baronvon Steuben - Washington provided stability for the army to rally around
The War for Independence
-American advantages: fighting on own ground, while English were far from own land;they were more deeply committed to the conflict than British; they had more aid fromforeign countries-The war proceeded in three different phases
The First Phase: New England
-After Lexington and Concord, American forces attacked General Thomas Gage’s armyin Boston – suffered large casualties in the Battle of Bunker Hill (on Breed’s Hill) andwere ultimately driven from there, however British had heavier losses than them-British realized Massachusetts was a bad place to fight so left there and went to Halifax, Nova Scotia with hundreds of Loyalist refugees – colonists had temporarily got them out-The Americans invaded Canada to try to remove British threat and persuade theCanadians to their cause – led by Benedict Arnold and Richard Montgomery, who died – British victory
The Second Phase: The Mid-Atlantic Region
-British troops led by General Howe – captures New York -On Christmas night in 1776, Washington crossed the icy Delaware River and surprisedand scattered the Hessians, and occupied the town but unable to hold-the British strategy was to cut the U.S. in two – Howe would move north from NewYork City up the Hudson, while another force would go south from Canada to meet him-This other force was led by John Burgoyne – planned a two-pronged attack -Howe decided to abandon the plan and launched an assault on the rebel capitalPhiladelphia-hoped to discourage Patriots and rally the Loyalists-had little resistance-Washington brought his troops into Valley Forge-Congress reassembled in Pennsylvania-On October 17, 1777, Burgoyne surrendered to Horatio Gates at Saratoga-major turning point of the war-led directly to an alliance between the United States and France-Britain’s inability to win the war during this time was largely due to their own mistakes – a lot due to William Howe, who abandoned his own strategy-leaving Burgoyne alone
The Iroquois and the British
-There were many divisions forming in the Iroquois confederacy; only three of the sixnations supported the British
Securing Aid from Abroad
-“Militia diplomats” were people who went to the capitals of Europe to negotiatecommercial treaties with the governments there – had to make crucial decisions on their own-Most promising ally to the U.S. was France; King Louis XVI and his foreign minister,the Count de Vergennes, were eager to see Britain lose part of its empire-French began to send the U.S. supplies and eventually recognized them as a foreignnation after the American success at the Battle of Saratoga-France’s intervention made the war an international conflict – aid was invaluable
The Final Phase: The South
-British strategy was to enlist loyalists in the United States to undermine the colonies-This strategy failed miserably – British underestimated number of patriots – contextunder which the important military encounters of the last years of the war occurred
 
-British had some successes but were constantly harassed by Patriot guerrillas such asThomas Sumter, Andrew Pickens and Francis Marion-Lord Cornwallis, the British commander in the South, crushed a Patriot force under Horatio Gates; Gates was replaced by Nathanael Greene – very good general-Clinton, British commander, ordered Lord Cornwallis to take up a position on the peninsula between the York and James Rivers and wait for ships to carry his troops to New York or Charleston-George Washington with Count Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, commander of theFrench force in America, set out to trap Cornwallis at Yorktown – caught Cornwallis between land and sea – surrendered on October 17, 1781 – fighting now over 
Winning the Peace
-the Americans and Britain reached a final agreement, the Treaty of Paris on September 3, 1783 – favorable to the U.S. – recognition of independence and territory
War and Society
-Historians have debated about whether the American Revolution was a social and political revolution
Loyalists and Minorities
-Many loyalists fled the country – harassed by Patriots-some moved to England-the Anglicans suffered because many members were loyalists – Catholicism benefited
The War and Slavery
-For most African Americans, the Revolution increased their exposure to concept of liberty – some engaged in open resistance to white control-Many whites thought that enslaving Africans, whom they considered inferior, wouldensure liberty for white people – feared impact of blacks living alongside whites
Native Americans and the Revolution
-Most Indians tried to stay out of the war – Revolution generally weakened their position-Patriot victory increased demand for western lands and white attitudes toward the tribestook a turn for the worst – resented assistance to British and wanted to conquer them-Revolution increased deep division among the tribes
Women’s Rights and Women’s Roles
-Some women fought alongside men in the war – most soldiers didn’t want them there-Molly Pitcher carried water to soldiers on the battlefield; Judith Sargent Murray wrotethat women deserved an education-Many, such as Ben Franklin and Benjamin Rush supported education for women-Married women had virtually no rights-Revolution ultimately strengthened the patriarchal structure of American society
The War Economy
-When English imports to America were cut off, there were desperate efforts throughoutte states to stimulate domestic manufacturing of certain necessities Ex. Clothes
The Creation of State Governments
-The Americans agreed that their new governments should be republican, which to themmeant a political system in which all power came from the people, rather than anauthority-In reality, the U.S., had always been unequal to certain minorities such as blacks
The First State Constitutions

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