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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

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Published by: mchiu61593 on Mar 29, 2010
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11/08/2012

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Michael ChiuAP US HistoryPeriod 211/14/09
Outline of Chapter 11:
Cotton, Slavery, and the Old South
-The South experienced dramatic growth in the 19
th
century- however, didn’t experience asmuch as a fundamental development as the north had experienced – remained agrarian
The Cotton Economy
-Shift of economic power in the South from “upper South” to “lower south” (southwest)
The Rise of King Cotton
-The tobacco economy declined because the market was unstable – rapidly exhausted land-Rice was a more stable crop – southern regions of coastal South still relied on it-Short-staple cotton was a hardier and coarser strain of cotton that could grow on a variety of soils – cotton gin helped to remove seeds – became a popular product to grow-Cotton production began to spread quickly in the 1820s, 50s, and 60s – the number of slavesalso increased rapidly in the cotton-growing regions
Southern Trade and Industry
-Industry remained an insignificant force in comparison with the agricultural economy-The South had a very inadequate transport system; few canals, crude roads, few railroads-The south depended on the north economically – James B.D. De Bow advocated for southerncommercial and agricultural expansion – 
 De Bow’s Review
– southern independence
Sources of Southern Difference
-One of the reasons the south continued to remain so different from the north was because of the region’s agricultural system – cotton production – not focused on industrial work -South also discouraged growth of cities and industry – southerners had the cavalier image – one based on chivalry, leisure, and elegance – free of acquisitive instincts of the “yankees”
White Society in the South
-Only a small percentage of southern whites owned slaves
The Planter Class
-The planter aristocracy – cotton magnates and the sugar and rice nabobs, who owned manyslaves and a lot of land – had a lot of power and influence in the south-Although planters were influential, the business was competitive and risky – had to supervisetheir operations carefully to make a profit-Wealthy southern whites tried to sustain aristocratic values, such as avoiding occupations liketrade and commerce – those were didn’t become planters joined the military – more “suitable”
“Honor”
-Idea of honor in the south connected to public appearance and saving face-Avenging insults was a social necessity, especially to women Ex. Preston Brooks pg. 300
The “Southern Lady”
-White men were more dominant over white women in the south than in the north-Southern white birth rate higher than that of the nation as a whole and infant mortality washigher than elsewhere
The Plain Folk 
-Typical white southerner was modest farmer 
 
-some owned slaves but most did not-southern educational system provided few opportunities for poor whites to learn-The “hill people” opposed the planter elite – however, most isolated from region’s life – secluded and unconnected with commercial economy of south-The whites who lived in the midst of the plantation system accepted the system because theywere tied to it – depended on it for many things – pg 302-The single greatest unifying factor among the southern white population was their perceptionof race – could look down on the black population of the region
Slavery: The “Peculiar Institution”
-Slavery isolated the South from the rest of American society
Varieties of Slavery
-Slavery as an institution was strictly regulated in detail by law – however, enforcement wasgenerally uneven-Plantations usually used one of two methods of assigning slave labor: task system and gangsystem-task system involved slaves being assigned a particular task during a time of day-gang system involves slaves being divided into groups and directed by a overseer who weretold to work for as many hours the overseer saw fit – more common method
Life Under Slavery
-Slave women worked very hard – did physical labor and domestic chores-There were very high slave mortality rates – due to enforced poverty-the work of household slaves was generally less arduous than field hands – lived close to themaster – familial relationships sometimes developed-However, female servants were vulnerable to sexual abuse
Slavery in the Cities
-Urban slaves had more independence than those in plantations
Free African Americans
-Most slaves who were free paid enough for their freedom; some were set free by a master’swill after his death or by one who had moral qualms about slavery-However, from the 1830s, slave laws became more rigid-Free blacks in the south usually lived in terrible poverty
The Slave Trade
-Slaves were transported on trains or by river – on shorter journeys, slaves traveled on foot –  bid for and judged by buyers – trade was dehumanizing-The foreign slave trade was just as bad or worse
Slave Resistance
-There were two extremes of black response to slavery: the “Sambo”, who acted out the role herecognized he was expected to play, and the slave rebel, who was forever rebellious-In 1800, Gabriel Prosser gathered slaves in Richmond, but word leaked out and the Virginiamilitia quelled the uprising before it began-The same thing happened in Denmark Vesey’s attempted rebellion-In 1831, Nat Turner and his followers armed themselves and killed whites in Virginia-Many slaves resisted simply by running away – underground railroad assisted them-Many slaves just refused to work hard – also used sabotage
The Culture of Slavery
-Blacks adapted by developing their own, separate culture – established racial pride and unity

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