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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

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Published by mchiu61593
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley

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Published by: mchiu61593 on Mar 29, 2010
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Michael ChiuAP US HistoryPeriod 211/25/09
Outline of Chapter 13:
The Impending Crisis
-All of the new controversies that arose between the north and south were about slavery-Desire for territorial expansion grew and would tear the nation apart – when new states wereannexed into the Union, the status of slavery in them was questioned
Looking Westward
-Advocates of westward expansion believed in “Manifest Destiny”
Manifest Destiny
-Idea that America was destined by God to expand its boundaries over North America-Many Americans throughout the 1840s believed that the “American race” was superior -Ideas of manifest destiny were spread throughout the nation by “penny press”-cheap paper -However, many opposed expansion, including Henry Clay, because they thought that itwould reopen previous controversies about slavery – weren’t heard
Americans in Texas
-Even though it was granted to the U.S. in the Louisiana Purchase, it renounced control in1819 – tried to buy Texas but Mexico refused-In the early 1820s, Mexico encouraged American immigration into Texas to boost economyand tax revenues – in 1824, a colonization law promised cheap land and 4-year exemptionfrom taxes-Most settlers came to Texas through American intermediaries who received land grants fromMexico and promised to bring settlers into the region-Most successful was Stephen F. Austin, from Missouri – established first legal Americansettlement in Texas in 1822 – created centers of power that competed with Mexican gov’t-One of the intermediaries led a revolt but was crushed-Four years later, they passed new laws that barred more American immigration – dropped in1833
Tensions between the United States and Mexico
-In the mid-1830s, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became a dictator of Mexico-American settlers proclaimed their independence from Mexico in 1836-American forces were annihilated at the Alamo in San Antonio and at Goliad-In 1836, Sam Houston organized a force and defeated the Mexican army at the Battle of SanJacinto – took Santa Anna prisoner, who signed a treaty giving Texas independence-
were Mexicans in Texas who fought with the Americans in the revolution-American Texans hoped for annexation into the U.S. – Sam Houston, the new president of Texas, sent a delegation to Washington to offer to join the Union-Many northerners opposed this because it was a new large slave territory-President Jackson opposed annexation because he feared it would cause sectionalcontroversy or even war with Mexico
-Control of the Oregon territory was disputed between the U.S. and Britain-Agreed on an 1818 treaty called “joint occupation” – allowed both citizens in territory-At the time, Oregon was mostly settled by Native Americans
-In 1840s, significant number of white Americans began to immigrate to Oregon-Devastated much of Indian population and greatly outnumbered British settlers there-In 1847, the Cayuse tribe killed 13 whites – did little to stop white immigration
The Westward Migration
-Most southerners migrated to Texas but largest number of immigrants came from the old Northwest-Character of migrations varied according to destination – groups headed to places wheremining and lumbering were present consisted mostly of men but farming = families-Vast majority of migrants looking for economic opportunities
Life on the Trail
-Most migrants stopped in Iowa and Missouri, joined a wagon train, and set off in coveredwagons – main route west was Oregon Trail – stretched from Independence, Missouri acrossthe Great Plains and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains-Some migrations went through the Santa Fe Trail – went into New Mexico-Native Americans were more helpful than harmful, acting as guides and traders-Families on the trail split tasks along gender lines – women often worked harder than men
Expansion and War
-Growing number of white Americans in the disputed lands – put pressure on government toannex Texas, Oregon, and other territory
The Democrats and Expansion
-In the election of 1844, the two leading candidates Henry Clay and Martin Van Burin,avoided taking a stand on annexation of Texas-Henry Clay secured the nomination but Van Buren was replaced with James K. Polk -Polk supported the annexation of Oregon and Texas – Texas became a state in 1845-For Oregon, Polk proposed that the border of the U.S and Canada be at the 49
parallel-British minister in Washington rejected, but British government accepted it in 1846 and the boundary was stet at the 49
The Southwest and California
-As soon as Texas was annexed, Mexico broke diplomatic ties with the U.S.-the U.S. and Mexico claimed different borders of Texas and Mexico – U.S. claimed that theRio Grande river was the western and southern border while Mexico claimed that the border had always been the Nueces River to the north of the Rio Grande-President Polk accepted Texas claim and sent troops under Zachary Taylor to Texas-Americans were also interested in California – inhabited by mostly Indians and Mexicans-White American settlers gradually arrived-President Polk wanted to acquire both New Mexico and California for the U.S.
The Mexican War
-Although appearing to prepare for war, Polk sent John Slidell to try to buy the disputedterritories from Mexico – rejected by Mexico-In 1846, Polk sent Taylor across the Nueces River to the Rio Grande-After a few months, Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked Americans-the U.S. declared war on Mexico in1846 – “War exists by the act of Mexico herself.”-Many people opposed war – Whigs accused Polk of deliberately stirred up attack andmaneuvered the country into war -The U.S. did well against Mexico – Taylor captured Monterrey in 1846 – Colonel StephenW. Kearny captured Santa Fe in 1846 – completed conquest of California in 1846
-General Winfield Scott captured Mexico City – in 1848, Nicholas Trist, a presidential envoysent by Polk, negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, where Mexico agreed to cedeCalifornia and New Mexico to the U.S. and acknowledge the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas – U.S. promised to assume financial claims and pay $15 million
The Sectional Debate
-Although James Polk tried to transcend sectional divisions, northerners and westernersthought that his policies favored the South at their expense
Slavery and the Territories
-During the Mexican War, Polk asked Congress to appropriate 2 million for buying peacewith Mexico – David Wilmot introduced an amendment into the bill that would prohibitslavery in any territory acquired from Mexico – passed in House but failed in Senate-President Polk supported the proposal to extend the Missouri Compromise Line through tothe Pacific coast, banning slavery north of it and permitting it south of the line-Others supported a plan known as “popular sovereignty” – each territory could decide statusof slavery there-Zachary Taylor won the election of 1848 – Free-Soilers elected 10 members of Congress – showed that existing political parties couldn’t contain the political passions of slavery
The California Gold Rush
-Residents of California who went searching for gold were called “Forty-Niners” – 95% weremen-Gold rush attracted some of the first Chinese immigrants – very poor -Gold rush created labor shortage – gave job opportunities to people who needed work – however; Indians were killed and also used as slaves-The gold rush became a factor of putting pressure on the U.S. to resolve issue of territories
Rising Sectional Tensions
-Zachary Taylor thought that once territories became states, their own governments couldsettle the slavery issue-In 1849, California adopted a constitution that banned slavery – admitted as a free states-The South feared that two new Free states would be added to the Northern majority-Tension grew between the north and south – talks of succession arose
The Compromise of 1850
-Henry Clay believed that no compromise could be reached unless it settled all of the issuesin dispute between the north and south-Presented his bill to the Senate in 1850 – California admitted as a free state, formation of territorial governments in the rest of the lands acquired from Mexico, abolition of the slavetrade in D.C., and a more effective fugitive slave law – bill stirred up many debates-First phase of debates involved Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster -After the bill was rejected by Congress, new leaders emerged: William H. Seward, from N.Y.; opposed the compromise, Jefferson Davis, thought that the slavery issue was of economic self-interest, and Stephen A. Douglas advocated for the economic needs of thewest and the construction of railroads – devoted to personal self-promotion-Douglas broke up Clay’s “omnibus bill” into separate bills that were voted on one by one – Resulted in Congress approving all the parts of the compromise – signed by Millard Fillmore
The Crises of the 1850sThe Uneasy Truce
-Both parties endorsed Compromise of 1850 in 1852

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