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Chapter 15

Chapter 15

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Published by mchiu61593
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley

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Published by: mchiu61593 on Mar 29, 2010
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06/24/2014

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Michael ChiuAP US HistoryPeriod 212/12/09
Outline of Chapter 15:
Reconstruction and the New South
The Problems of PeacemakingThe Aftermath of War
-After the Civil War, the South was devastated-Southerners looked back at the pre-Civil War South with nostalgia – was the “Lost Cause” – Civil War leaders were treated with reverence
Competing Notions of Freedom
-Blacks debated on how to get freedom: some wanted the land that they worked on whileothers just wanted legal equality – all blacks wanted independence from white control-Blacks began creating new black communities-White Southerners felt that freedom meant controlling of their own destinies withoutinterference from the North-In 1865, Congress established the Freedmen’s Bureau, an agency of the army which gavefood to former slaves and poor whites – directed by Oliver O. Howard – operated for 1 year 
Issues of Reconstruction
-Among the Republicans in Congress, the Conservatives thought that the South accept theabolition of slavery, but proposed few other conditions for readmission of seceded states-Radicals, led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner, urged that the military leaders of the Confederacy be punished and that many Southern whites should be disenfranchised
Plans for Reconstruction
-Lincoln agreed with the Moderates and Conservatives-In Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan, he offered amnesty to white settlers who would pledgeloyalty to the government and accept elimination of slavery – when 10 percent of any statetook this oath, they could set up a state government-However, the Radical Republicans supported the Wade-Davis Bill, which would let the president appoint a governor for each conquered state – when a majority of the white malesof the state pledged allegiance to the Union, governor would summon state constitutionalconvention – elected delegates had to swear by Ironclad Oath, that they would never bear arms against the U.S. – new state constitutions had to abolish slavery and disfranchiseConfederate civil and military leaders-Wade-Davis bill was passed by Congress in 1864 abut was vetoed by Lincoln
Johnson and “Restoration”
-Lincoln’s successor, Andrew Johnson, had to lead Moderates and Conservatives-He was a Democrat until joining the Union ticket with Lincoln – hostile to freed slaves-By the end of 1865, all seceded states had formed new governments – however, RadicalRepublicans did not want to recognize these governments as part of the Union – North beganto have a more hardened attitude toward the South
Radical ReconstructionThe Black Codes
 
-Black codes enacted by the South gave whites more control over former slaves – allowedofficials to apprehend unemployed blacks, fine them, and hire them out to employers-Congress countered by extending the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau and allowing it tonullify work agreements forced onto freedmen under the Black Codes-In 1866, Congress passed the first Civil Rights Act – declared blacks to be citizens of theUnited States and allowing federal government to intervene in state affairs to protect rights of citizens-President Johnson vetoed both of these bills, but Congress overrode him
The Fourteenth Amendment
-Fourteenth Amendment offered first constitutional definition of American citizenship:Everyone born in the United States and everyone naturalized was automatically a citizen-Amendment also imposed penalties on states that denied suffrage to adult male inhabitants-Amendment also prohibited old members of Congress that aided the Confederacy fromholding any state or federal office unless 2/3 of the Congress voted to pardon them-Radicals allowed any state that ratified the amendment to be readmitted to the Union – onlyTennessee did – all others refused, so the amendment did not have necessary approval
The Congressional Plan
-Congressional Radicals, now stronger in numbers, passed 3 Reconstruction bills andoverrode all of Johnson’s vetoes on them – these bills established plans for Reconstruction-Under bills, Tennessee, which ratified 14
th
Amendment, was readmitted to the Union-By 1868, seven of the ten former Confederate states were readmitted to the union-the 15
th
Amendment forbade states and federal government to deny suffrage to any citizenon account of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
The Impeachment of the President
-After Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Stanton, he violated the Tenure of Office Act – Radicals in the House impeached him and sent to the case to the Senate for trial-Johnson was acquitted by the Senate
The South in Reconstruction
-Southern whites claimed that the established governments by Congress were corrupt-Black Southerners condemned Reconstructions – said that state governments failed toguarantee freedmen any rights of citizenship
The Reconstruction Governments
-Critics of the Southern whites who helped maintain Republican control called them“scalawags” – many of these whites were former Whigs who didn’t feel right as Democrats-Scalawags believed that the Republican Party would better serve their economic intereststhan the Democratic Party-White men from the North who served as Republican leaders in the South were referred toas “carpetbaggers” – most were veterans of Union army that looked at South as new frontier -Most numerous Republicans in the South were black freedmen – in several states, African-American voters held their own conventions – one was in Alabama in 1867 –wanted equality
Education
-there were also positive accomplishments during the Reconstruction – one was education-However, southern education was being segregated into black and white school systems-Efforts to integrate the two failed – new Southern Democratic regimes abandoned efforts
Landownership and Tenancy
-Efforts to reform landownership in the South failed
 
-Sharecropping was when laborers worked for their own plots of land and paid their landlords with a share of their own crop
The Crop-Lien System
-During the postwar years, African Americans made significant economic progress-In the “crop-lien system”, farmers had to give storeowners or merchants a claim or lien ontheir crops as guarantee for the loans – farmers were often trapped in a cycle of debt-The crop-lien system generally led to a decline in the Southern agricultural economy
The African-Americans Family in Freedom
-During Reconstruction, many slaves tried to rebuild families and seek relatives-Within the black family, male and female roles came to resemble that within white families-However, this was hard to sustain because of economic necessity – required black women toengage in income-producing activities, such as working as domestic servants
The Grant Administration
-American voters in 1868 turned to Grant, the hero of the war 
The Soldier President
-Grant accepted the Republican nomination because he believed Republican Reconstructionwas more popular in the North-Democrats nominated former governor of New York Horatio Seymour -Grant’s performance was ineffectual and clumsy – no political experience – used the spoilssystem very blatantly – some Republicans suspected corruption in Grant administration-At the end of Grant’s first term, a part of the party, Liberal Republicans, opposed“Grantism”-In 1872, left the party and nominated Horace Greeley for president – Democrats nominatehim as well, hoping that an alliance would help them defeat Grant-However, Grant still won a substantial victory
The Grant Scandals
-During the 1872 campaign, the first of many scandals came to light in Grant’sadministration – the heads Credit Mobilier, a construction company that helped build thePacific Railroad, and Union Pacific stockholders, steered large fraudulent contracts to their construction company – to prevent investigations, directors had given Credit Mobilier stock to key members of Congress-Congress investigated, revealing that some highly placed Republicans had accepted stock 
The Greenback Question
-the Panic of 1873, the worst one yet, began with the failure of banking firm Jay Cook andCompany – invested too heavily in postwar railroad building-Resulted in formation of the National Greenback Party – failed to gain widespread support but kept the money issue alive
Republican Diplomacy
-the Johnson and Grant administrations had great success in foreign affairs because of their Secretary in States William H. Seward and Hamilton Fish-Seward was an expansionist – bought Alaska from Russia, despite criticism from many whoconsidered Alaska a frozen wasteland – called it “Seward’s Folly”-Seward also carried out America’s annexation of the tiny Midway Islands west of Hawaii-Hamilton Fish had to deal with resolving controversy about England breaking neutrality byallowing English shipyards to build ships for the Confederacy – Americans demanded thatEngland pay for the damage that these vessels had caused – known as “the
 Alabama
claims”

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