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Chapter 18

Chapter 18

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Published by mchiu61593
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley
American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley

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Published by: mchiu61593 on Mar 29, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Michael ChiuAP US HistoryPeriod 21/4/09
Outline of Chapter 18:
The Age of the City
The Urbanization of AmericaThe Lure of the City
-In the half-century after the Civil War, the urban population of America increasedsevenfold – a majority of the American people lived in urban areas-Natural increase accounted for only a little bit of the urban growth – mostly immigration-Offered more and better-paying jobs than those in rural America
-Late nineteenth century was an age of great geographical mobility – Americans leftagricultural regions at a dramatic rate – some moved to new farmlands in the West butmany moved to cities of the East and Midwest-Factory jobs for blacks were rare – urban blacks tended to have low-paying jobs-there were many substantial African-American communities in over thirty cities
The Ethnic City
-The immigrant populations that immigrated to the United States were very diverse – nosingle national group dominated-To ease the transition of moving into a city, many groups formed ethnic communities – offered newcomers familiar things such as newspapers in their native languages andstores selling their native foods
-Many immigrants wanted to assimilate and become true “Americans”-This urge to assimilate put a particular strain on relations between men and women inimmigrant communities – many immigrant women began working outside the home
-The huge arrival of immigrants to the U.S provoked fear among native-born Americans – through general prejudices and economic concerns-Henry Bowers founded the American Protective Association in 1887 – group committedto stopping immigrant tide-In the same year the Immigration Restriction League was founded by 5 Harvard alumni – believed that immigrants should be screened through tests-More ambitious restriction proposals made little progress because many native-bornAmericans actually welcomed immigration because it provided the growing economywith a cheap and plentiful labor supply
The Urban LandscapeThe Creation of Public Space
-One of the most important innovations of cities were urban parks – antidote tocongestion-Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux designed New York’s Central Park in 1850s-As cities increased, urban leaders launched huge projects to remake the look of cities
-The “city beautiful” movement led by architect Daniel Burham was aimed to impose asimilar order and symmetry on disorder ed life of cities-Sometimes, the effort to remake cities created new landscapes – in Boston, a region of marshy tidal land was used to create a neighborhood known as “Back Bay”
Housing the Well-to-Do
-the moderately well-to-do and wealthy settled in new suburbs-Chicago boasted nearly 100 residential suburbs in the 1870s-Developers tried to make these communities appeal to people from the countryside
Housing Workers and the Poor-
Most people could not afford to live in the suburbs-Many urban residents lived in “tenements”, rental buildings – soon became “miserableabodes” – tenements became synonymous with slum dwellings only-Jacob Riis, a Danish immigrant described tenement life in
 How the Other Half Lives
Urban Transportation
-Urban growth posed transportation challenges – old streets too narrow for heavy trafficand most were not paved-In 1870, New York opened its first elevated railway – moved rapidly above streets oniron structures-Other cities experimented with cable cars – Richmond, Virginia, introduced first electrictrolley line – Boston opened first American subway
The “Skyscraper”
-Taller buildings were made possible by steel girder construction – first tall building touse this technique appeared in Chicago – Louis Sullivan was the greatest figure in theearly development of the skyscraper 
Strains of Urban LifeFire and Disease
-Since many buildings were made out of wood, fire was a serious problem in cities-Although terrible, fires encouraged building of fireproof buildings and development of  professional fire departments
Environment Degradation
-the air quality in many cities was very poor – from factories and from furnaces in homes-Incidence of respiratory infection much higher in urban areas than in rural areas-Alice Hamilton was a physician who was a pioneer in identification of pollution in theworkplace – brought problems to public attention-In 1912, government created the Public Health Service – prevented diseases
Urban Poverty
-Some charitable societies such as the Salvation Army concentrated on religiousrevivalism rather than relieving the homeless and hungry
Crime and Violence
-Poverty and crowding increased crime and violence – American murder rate rose rapidlyin late 19
century – caused development of more professional police forces
The Machine and the Boss
-Urban machine was one of America’s most distinctive political institutions – product of the potential voting power of large immigrant communities-A group of urban “bosses” of foreign birth emerged – function was to win votes for their organization – had to win loyalty of companions
-Machines were vehicles for making money-Politicians enriched themselves through graft and corruption-Reasons for boss rule: power of immigrant voters, link between the politicalorganizations and prominent citizens who profited from their dealings, and the structuralweaknesses of city governments
The Rise of Mass Consumption
-During the last decades of the 19
century, a distinctive middle-class culture began tohave a powerful influence over the whole of American life
Patterns of Income and Consumption
-Incomes in the industrial ear were rising for almost everyone although at uneven rates-also important to new mass market was development of new merchandising techniques,making many consumer goods available to a broader market for the first time – exampleof one was ready made clothing and the buying and preparing of food
Chain Stores and Mail-Order Houses
-Small local stores faced competition from new “chain stores” – network of stores-The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (A&P) created a national network of grocery stores as early as the 1850s-these stores were slow to reach remote areas – rural people eventually gained access tothe new consumer world through mail-order houses – In 1872, Montgomery Warddistributed a catalog of goods in association with the farmers’ organization the Grange
Department Stores
-Large department stores opened in larger cities – turned shopping into a more glamorousactivity-Marshall Field created one of the first American department stores – had things thatwere once sold in different stores in one store
Women as Consumers
-Women were generally the primary consumers in families-Consumer economy also produced new jobs for women as sales clerks and waitresses-the consumer economy spawned the consumer protection movement-the National Consumers League formed by Florence Kelley, wanted to use the power of women to force retailers to improve wages and working conditions for women workers
Leisure in the Consumer SocietyRedefining Leisure
-In earlier eras, leisure was associated with laziness-“Rest” was valued as a time for spiritual reflection and a time to prepare for work -Economist Simon Patten was one of the first intellectuals to say that leisure time was both a right and an important contribution to an individual’s health-Simon Patten believed that the principal goal of the current economy should be anabundance of goods and the pursuit of pleasure-One of the distinctive characteristics of urban leisure during the time was intensity of  public character – entertainment meant “going out”
Spectator Sports
-By the end of the civil war, interest in baseball had grown rapidly – many teams existed – first salaried team was the Cincinnati Red Stockings-Football also became popular 

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