XIII.Neuronsa.The cell body contains the nucleus.b.The neuron contains the axons anddendritesc.Neurons carrying impulses to the centralnervous systems (CNS) are calledsensory neurons.d.Neurons carrying impulses away fromthe CNS are called motor neurons.e.Synapse is the chemical transmission of impulses from one neuron to another.XIV.Axons and Dendritesa.The axon conducts impulses from thecell body.b.The dendrites receive stimuli from thebody and transmit them to the axon.c.The neurons are protected andinsulated by Schwann cells.
The Schwann cell sheath is called theneurolemma.e.Neurons do not reproduce after theneonatal period.
If an axon or dendrite is damaged, it willdie and be replaced slowly only if theneurolemma is intact and the cell bodyhas not died.XV.Spinal Nervesa.The human being has 31 pairs of spinalnerves.b.Mixed nerve fibers are formed by the joining of the anterior motor andposterior sensory roots.c.Posterior roots contain afferent(sensory) nerve fibers.d. Anterior roots contain efferent (motor)nerve fibers.XVI.Autonomic Nervous Systema.Sympathetic (adrenergic) fibers dilatepupils, increase heart rate and rhythm,contract blood vessels, and relaxsmooth muscles of the bronchi.b.Parasympathetic (cholinergic) fibersproduce the opposite effect.Diagnostic TestI.Skull and Spinal Radiography
Descriptioni.Radiographs of the skull reveal thesize and shape of the skull bones,suture separation, in infants,fractures or bony defects, erosion,or calcification.ii.Spinal radiographs identifyfractures, dislocation, compression,curvature, erosion, narrowed spinalcord, and degenerative processes.b.Procedure interventionsi.Provide nursing support for theconfused, combative, or ventilator-dependent client.ii.Maintain immobilization of the neckif a spinal fracture is suspected.iii.Remove metal items from bodyparts.iv.If the client has thick and heavyhair, this should be documentedbecause it may affect interpretationof the x-ray film.v.Post procedure intervention:maintain immobilization until resultsare known.
Computed tomography scana.Descriptioni.Computed Tomography is a type of brain scanning that may or may notrequire an injection of a dye.
Computed tomography is used todetect intracranial bleeding, spaceoccupying lesions, cerebral edema,infarctions, hydrocephalus, cerebralatrophy, and shifts of brainstructures.
Preprocedure interventionsi.Obtain an informed consent if a dyeis used.ii.Assess for allergies to iodine,contrast dyes, or shellfish if a dye isused.iii.Instruct the client in the need to liestill and flat during the test.iv.Instruct the client to hold his or her breath when requested.v.Initiate an intravenous line if prescribed.vi.Remove objects from the head,such as wigs, barrettes, earrings,and hairpins.vii.Assess for claustrophobia.viii.Inform the client of possiblemechanical noises as the scanningoccurs.ix.Inform the client that there may bea hot, flushed sensation and ametallic taste in the mouth when thedye is injected.x.Note that some clients may begiven the dye even if they report anallergy and are treated with anantihistamine and corticosteroidsbefore the injection to reduce theseverity of a reaction.
Provide replacement fluids becausediuresis from the dye is expected.ii.Monitor for allergic reaction to thedye.
Assess dye injection site for bleeding or hematoma, and monitor extremity for color, warmth, and thepresence of distal pulses.III.Magnetic Resonance Imaginga.Descriptioni.Magnetic resonance imaging is anon-invasive procedure thatidentifies types of tissues, tumors,and vascular abnormalities.ii.Magnetic resonance imaging issimilar to the computed tomographyscan but provides more detailedpictures.
Preprocedure interventionsi.Remove all metal objects from theclientii.Determine whether the client has apacemaker, implanted defibrillator,or metal implants such as a hipprosthesis or vascular clipsbecause these clients cannot havethis test performed.iii.Remove intravenous fluid pumpsduring the test.
Provide precautions for the clientwho is attached to pulse oximeter because it can cause a burn duringtesting if coiled around the body or a body part.v.Provide an assessment of the clientwith claustrophobia.vi.Administer medication asprescribed for the client withclaustrophobia