Cross-cultural differences in Romania
– comparative study –
The term "cross-cultural" emerged in the social sciences in the 1930s, largely as a resultof the cross-cultural survey undertaken by George Peter Murdock. Initially referring tocomparative studies based on statistical interpretation of cultural data, the term graduallyacquired a secondary sense of cultural interactivity. The comparative sense is used in phrasessuch as "a cross-cultural perspective", "cross-cultural differences, "a cultural study of ... " and soon, while the significance of interaction can be found in works like
Attitudes and Adjustment inCross-Cultural Contact: Recent Studies of Foreign Students
(1956 issue of The Journal of SocialIssues, written by MB Smith).In 1954, the sociologist Alex Inkeles and psychologist Daniel Levinson published a studyon cultural differences, which stated that there are some basic global issues which affect thefunctioning of society, groups and individuals that are part of it:1.
Relationship with authority ;2.
Self-awareness, in particular:a)
the link between individual and society;b)
the individual's concept of masculinity and femininity;3.
Handling conflicts, including control of aggression and feelings.A similar study was conducted twenty years later by IBM and it revealed a new list of problems affecting society:1.
Social inequality, including relations with the (Power Distance);2.
The relationship between individual and group (collectivism over individualism);3.
Concepts of masculinity and femininity, the social implications of birth as a boy orgirl (Femininity to masculinity);