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A Model of Brand Awareness Brand Attitude Advertising Strategies

A Model of Brand Awareness Brand Attitude Advertising Strategies

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Published by: omergul on Mar 29, 2010
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A Model of BrandAwareness andBrand AttitudeAdvertising Strategies
Larry PercyLintas: USAJohn R. RossiterAustralian Graduate School of ManagementABSTRACTA model is described that helps guide advertising strategy, basedupon careful attention to brand awareness and brand attitude. In thismodel, an important distinction is drawn between recognition brandawareness and recall brand awareness. Brand attitude strategy isseen as reflecting an interaction between a potential consumer'sinvolvement with the purchase decision and the underlyingmotivation to purchase. Applications of the model are discussed.Contrary to what may seem to be obvious, purchase intention is rarelythe direct object of advertising communication strategy. Although it iscertainly true that purchase intention and behavior is the ultimate goalof advertising, more often one must be preconditioned by first raisingthe salience of a brand, and then forming at least some tentative at-titudes toward it before purchase is considered. As a result, it is im-portant, from both a practical and theoretical perspective, to understandthe dynamics involved in generating brand awareness and attitude.Toward that end this article dicusses the strategic implications of themodel proposed by Rossiter and Percy (1980, 1987) for executing ad-
Psychology & Marketing Vol. 9(4): 263-274 (July/August 1992)© 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CCC 0742-6046/92/040263-12$04.00
263
 
vertising that will meet particular brand awareness and brand attitudecommunication objectives.In this model, brand awareness is treated as a dichotomy that ad-dresses both recognition and recall objectives, and brand attitude isdiscussed in terms of the interaction between the underlying motiva-tions driving behavior in a category and the involvement associatedwith the purchase decision. As discussed in detail in the following,motivation is conceptualized as either positive or negative, involvementas either low or high. It therefore follows that eight primary strategiesare available for advertising execution, based upon combinations of thetwo brand awareness strategies and the four brand attitude strategies(see Figure 1).BRAND AWARENESSFrequently overlooked in discussions of advertising strategy, brandawareness is a crucial consideration. It may be thought of as a buyer'sability to identify a brand within a category in sufficient detail to makea purchase. It is important to remember that sufficient detail does notalways require identification of the brand name. Often it is no morethen a visual image of the package that stimulates a response to thebrand. Moreover, recall of the name is not necessarily required becausebrand awareness may proceed through brand recognition. When abrand is recognized at point of purchase, brand awareness does notrequire brand recall. This is a key point in the consideration of brandawareness as a communication objective.In fact, this difference is often misunderstood by marketing and ad-vertising managers. The difficulty relates to the essential differencebetween recognition and recall, a difference that is extremely importantto advertising strategy. Brand
recognition
and brand
recall
are twoseparate types of brand awareness. The difference depends upon the
BRAND AWARENESS
Brand Recognition(at-point-of-purchase)Brand Recall(prior to purchase)
BRAND ATTITUDE
Low InvolvementInformationalHigh InvolvementInformationalLow InvolvementTransformationalHigh InvolvementTransformational
Figure 1.
Two-factor communication models.
264
PERCY AND ROSSITER
 
communication effect that occurs first in the buyer's mind: categoryneed or brand awareness.
Recognition: Brand Awareness First
In many purchase situations, the brand is quite literally presented tothe consumer first, and this is what stimulates the consumer to considerthe relevancy of category need: Do I really need or want this? Thesequence in the buyer's mind is: Recognition of the brand reminds meof category need. It is important to understand here that a brand mayactually fail a recall test, yet be recognized in the store at the time ofthe purchase decision and bought.A good illustration of what we are talking about here is the processmost people go through when food shopping. Very few shoppers actuallycarry lists; and those who do will only have category reminders (e.g.,trash
bags,
saladdressing,
etc.),
not brand
names,
on their list. Shoppersrely upon visual reminders of their needs as they scan the packages onthe shelf and brands are recognized. Clearly, then, when purchase se-lections rely upon recognition, advertising should feature the packageas it will be seen in the store.
Recall:
Category Need FirstIn other decision-making situations, the brand is not present. A cate-gory need is experienced first, and then the consumer relies upon mem-ory to generate possible solutions. In this case the consumer must
recall
a brand, or several brands, from memory in order to make a decision.For example, if a family decides to go out for lunch at a fast-food res-traurant, they are unlikely to drive around until they recognize onethey would like to patronize. Instead they will recall from memoryavailable alternatives, select one, and then proceed there for lunch. Asa rule, the first recalled brand (given a favorable attitude) will get thebusiness. In this case, it is important to see and hear the brand namerepeatedly linked to the category need in advertising.As we can see, brand awareness is not a simple issue. It has at leasttwo major components; and, in fact, one can even look at recognitionbrand awareness as being either visual recognition or verbal recogni-tion. The important thing to understand is that brand awareness is afunction of whether or not recognition ofthe brand drives category need(recognition awareness) or whether category need drives brand aware-ness (recall awareness). This distinction is critical to effective adver-tising strategy.This question is relevant to
all
advertising and promotion situations.An advertiser is always trying to create or maintain brand awarenessso that the brand is salient for the buyer in a purchase situation. With-
MODEL FOR ADVERTISING STRATEGY 265

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