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Characterization of Composite Materials

Characterization of Composite Materials

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Published by Momentum Press
Composite materials make their way into all aspects of modern technological society, but particularly so for applications requiring great strength and light weight such as in the aerospace industry. Because they are hybrid heterogeneous materials, they can be difficult to characterize with any one single methodology This volume in the Materials Characterization Series will guide engineers and technicians on which methods work best and what to look for when reading results, be they from X-Ray diffraction, or Nuclear Magnetic Imaging.
Composite materials make their way into all aspects of modern technological society, but particularly so for applications requiring great strength and light weight such as in the aerospace industry. Because they are hybrid heterogeneous materials, they can be difficult to characterize with any one single methodology This volume in the Materials Characterization Series will guide engineers and technicians on which methods work best and what to look for when reading results, be they from X-Ray diffraction, or Nuclear Magnetic Imaging.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Momentum Press on Mar 29, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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02/07/2013

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vi CONTENTS
2.5
Polymer–Polymer Composites 38
Polymer–Polymer Interdiffusion 38, Surface Segregation in PolymerBlends 39
2.6
Fiber–Polymer Composites 39
Stress Transfer at Interfaces 39, Surface Structure of CarbonMaterials 41
2.7
Summary 41
NMR IMAGING OF COMPOSITES
3.1
Introduction 44
Basis of NMR Imaging 45, Relaxation Parameters in NMR Imaging 46, Pulse Sequences for Generating Contrast inImaging 47, Resolution in NMR Imaging 48, Utility of NMRI 49, Image Processing 49
3.2
Advanced Imaging Techniques 50
Chemical Shift Imaging 50
3.3
NMRI of Solids 52
Design Limitations of High Performance Fiber-ReinforcedComposites 52, Interfacial Bond Quality and Defect Characteristicsof Composites 53, NMR Imaging as a Composite InspectionTechnique: Detection of Internal Voids 54, Detection of NonuniformDispersion of Filler 55, Aging of Composites 56, MRI as anEnvironmental Monitoring Technique 58, Adsorption of Liquids inPolymers 58,
1
H Imaging of Solids 58,
13
C Imaging of Solids 60
3.4
Conclusions 61
NMR STUDIES OF ISOTOPE-ENRICHED SPECIES AT INTERFACES
4.1
Introduction 64
4.2
Practical NMR Considerations 65
4.3
Surface Modifiers 67
4.4
Conclusions 77
INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY 
5.1
Introduction 80
5.2
Characterizing Solid Surfaces 81
 
CONTENTS vii
5.3
Inverse Gas Chromatography 81
IGC Versus Traditional Adsorption Methods 82, The GasChromatographic Adsorption Process 83, Chromatographic Peaksand the Adsorption Isotherm 85, Experimental Equipment 87
5.4
Applications of IGC 89
Infinite Dilution IGC on Studies on Cellulose Materials 89, Adsorption Isotherm Studies on Cellulose Materials 90, Acid–BaseSurface Properties of Materials 93, Thermodynamic InteractionParameters for Polymer–Polymer and Polymer–Solute Systems 95,Presence of Contaminants on Fiber Surfaces 97, Measurement of Glass Transition Temperatures using IGC 98
5.5
Future Applications 99
Site Energy Distributions on Heterogeneous Solid Surfaces 99,Characterizing Organic Adsorbates on Particulate Surfaces 100,
In
 
Situ
Column Reaction Studies 101
DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY 
6.1
Dielectric Spectroscopy of Composite Media 105
Dielectric Relaxation in Solids 105, Dielectric Properties of Heterogeneous Media 111
6.2
Dielectric Spectra of Composites: Examples 115
Nonpolymeric Composites 115, Polymeric Composites 117
6.3
Conclusion 123
IMAGING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS BY THENEW SCANNING PROBE TECHNIQUES (STM/AFM)
7.1
Introduction to Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) 129
7.2
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 131
Introduction 131, Spectroscopy 134
7.3
 Atomic Force Microscopy 136
Introduction 136, Dynamic Force Microscopy 138
7.4
Surface Modifications with STM/AFM 139
7.5
Related Scanning Techniques 140
Related Tunneling Techniques 140, Related NontunnelingTechniques 143
7.6
Applications to Polymer Composite Materials 143
7.7
The Future of SPM 144

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