|Views: 5,943|Likes: 15

Published by myiitchemistry

See more

See less

SINHA

’

s I. I.T. CHEMISTRY

- 1 -

1-D-10 Talwandi & B-7. JAWAHAR NAGAR, KOTA.(RAJ) Ph-0744-2422383 .Mo-93149-05055

THERMODYNAMICS TEST PAPER

1. True or false?(a) On the Celsius scale, the boiling point of water at standard pressure is 100.00

°

C.(b) Doubling the absolute temperature of an ideal gas at fixed volume and amount of gas willdouble the pressure.(c) The ratio

PV/mT

is the same for all gases in the limit of zero pressure.(d) The ratio

PV/nT

is the same for all gases in the limit of zero pressure.(e) All ideal gases have the same density at 25

°

C and 1 bar.(f) All ideal gases have the same number of molecules per unit volume at 25

°

C and 10 bar.2. For each of the following processes, state which of

Ä

U

,

Ä

H

,

Ä

S

,

Ä

Stot

,

Ä

A

, and

Ä

G

must bezero.(a) A nonideal gas undergoes a Carnot cycle.(b) Hydrogen is burned in an adiabatic calorimeter of fixed volume.(c) A nonideal gas undergoes a Joule-Thompson expansion.(d) Ice is melted at 0

°

C and 1 atm.3. (a) Calculate the change in the molar Gibbs energy of oxygen when its pressure is increasedisothermally from 1.0 atm to 100.0 atm at 298 K.(b) The change in the Gibbs energy for a certain constant-pressure process was found to fit theexpression:

Ä

G

/

J

=

−

73.1

+

42.8(

T

/

K

) . Calculate the value of

Ä

S for the process.4. When one dives, water pressure increases 1 atm every 10.55 m of depth. The deepest depth is10,430 m. Assume 1 mole of gas exists in a balloon at that depth at 273 K.Assume an isothermaland reversible process, calculate

w

,

q

,

Ä

U

,

Ä

H

,

Ä

A

, and

Ä

S

for the gas after it rises to the surface,assuming the balloon does not burst!5. Find the amount of work done on the surroundings when 1 liter of an ideal gas, initially at apressure of 10 atm, is allowed to expand at constant temperature to 10 liters by

a)

reducing the external pressure to 1 atm in a single step,

b)

reducing

P

first to 5 atm, and then to 1 atm,

c)

allowing the gas to expand into an evacuated space so its total volume is 10 liters.6. Hydrogen chloride gas readily dissolves in water, releasing 75.3 kJ/mol of heat in the process. If one mole of HCl at 298 K and 1 atm pressure occupies 24.5 liters, find

Ä

U

for the system when onemole of HCl dissolves in water under these conditions.

7One liter of a 0.1 M solution of substance A mixes

ideally

with 3 liters of a 0.05 M solutionof substance B at 25

°C. What is

mix

S? And

mix

H?8. A biological cell at 37

°C needs to run the hypothetical reaction:

A + B Z

G

° = + 23.8 kJ/mol

and gets it to be spontaneous by using an enzyme that couples that reaction withATP ADP + phosphate

G

° =

- 31.9 kJ/mol Find the equilibrium constant the cellmanages for A + B + ATP Z + ADP + phosphate (All values pertain to 37

°C.)

SINHA

’

s I. I.T. CHEMISTRY

- 2 -

1-D-10 Talwandi & B-7. JAWAHAR NAGAR, KOTA.(RAJ) Ph-0744-2422383 .Mo-93149-05055

9. You pump up a bicycle tire by compressing (adiabatically) air at 1 bar and 25

°C into a

volume of 1.3

×10

-3

m

3

at 5 bar. If the air is ideal, and its C

P

= 29.17 J mol

-1

K

-1

, what willthe temperature of the air inside the tire become? (Ignore the temperature dependence ofC

P

.)10.How many liters of methane at STP does it take to boil a liter of water? The water startsat 25

°C and has C

P

= 75.29 J mol

-1

K

-1

and a

vap

H = 40.66 kJ/mol. Ignore temperaturevariations in these parameters (and those below).Molecule CH

4

(g) O

2

(g) CO

2

(g) H

2

O(liq)

f

H

, kJ/mol - 74.81 0.00 - 393.51 - 285.8311.Estimate the temperature at which

f

G

(NH

3

) = 0 given that at 25

°C,

f

G

= - 16 kJ/moland

f

H

= - 45 kJ/mol.12. Find

S for the base reaction of aqueous ammonia from the following table of K

b

as afunction of TT(

°C)

K

b

ln(K

b

) 1/T (K

-1

)20 1.710

×10

-5

-10.9764 3.411

×10

-3

25 1.774

×10

-5

-10.9397 3.354

×10

-3

30 1.820

×10

-5

-10.9141 3.299

×10

-3

f

G

°(diamond) = +2

.900 kJ/mol ... from graphite, of course.The densities are

[graphite] = 2.260 g/cc and

[diamond] = 3.513 g/cc.

Ignoring

their isothermal compressibilities, at room temperature, what pressure would berequired to make diamonds?14. A mole of dry air (as an ideal gas) originally at 1 atm and 20

°C expands reversibly and

adiabatically to double its volume. If C

P

(air)=1.007 J/g K at that temperature, what is thefinal temperature of the gas?

15. For one mole of an ideal monatomic gas, the temperature is changed from 100

°

C to25

°

C, while the pressure is held constant (P = Pext) at 200,000 Pa. Calculate

Ä

U, q, andw for this process. [HINT: You may assume that, for this gas, CVm = 3R/2, independentof temperature.]

16 A one-gram block of aluminum is first cooled in a freezer to 0

°

C. It is then removed from thefreezer and plunged into a bath of boiling water under a constant pressure of 1 bar. Ultimately theblock of aluminum comes to the temperature of the boiling water (100

°

C). Determine the entropychange during the process of heating.

17. Calculate

Ä

S when one mol of liquid water is heated from 0

°

C to 100

°

C under aconstant pressure of 1 bar.

18. Calculate

Ä

G for the isothermal expansion of 2.50 mol of an ideal gas at 350 K from an initialpressure of 10.5 bar to a final pressure of 0.500 bar.

## Activity (14)