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Soil - Evaluation of Soil and Rock

Soil - Evaluation of Soil and Rock

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01/22/2013

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Technical Report Documentation Page
 
1. Report No.
FHWA-IF-02-034
2. Government Accession No.
 
3. Recipient
=
s Catalog No.4. Report Date
April 2002
4. Title and Subtitle
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING CIRCULAR NO. 5Evaluation of Soil and Rock Properties
6. Performing Organization Code:7. Author(s)
P.J. Sabatini, R.C. Bachus, P.W. Mayne, J.A. Schneider, T.E. Zettler
8. Performing Organization Report No.10. Work Unit No.(TRAIS)9. Performing Organization Name and Address
GeoSyntec Consultants1100 Lake Hearn Drive, NEAtlanta, Georgia 30342-1523
11. Contract or Grant No.
DTFH61-94-C-00099
13 Type of Report and Period Covered
Technical Manual
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
U.S. Department of TransportationOffice of Bridge TechnologyFederal Highway Administration400 Seventh Street, SW Washington, DC 20590
14. Sponsoring Agency Code15. Supplementary Notes
 FHWA COTR: Chien-Tan ChangFHWA Technical Consultant: Jerry A. DiMaggio
 16. Abstract
This document presents state-of-the-practice information on the evaluation of soil and rock properties for geotechnicaldesign applications. This document addresses the entire range of materials potentially encountered in highway engineeringpractice, from soft clay to intact rock and variations of materials that fall between these two extremes.Information is presented on parameters measured, evaluation of data quality, and interpretation of properties for conventional soiland rock laboratory testing, as well as in situ devices such as field vane testing, cone penetration testing, dilatometer,pressuremeter, and borehole jack. This document provides the design engineer with information that can be used to develop arationale for accepting or rejecting data and for resolving inconsistencies between data provided by different laboratories and fieldtests.This document also includes information on: (1) the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Personal Data Assistancedevices for the collection and interpretation of subsurface information; (2) quantitative measures for evaluating disturbance of laboratory soil samples; and (3) the use of measurements from geophysical testing techniques to obtain information on the modulusof soil. Also included are chapters on evaluating properties of special soil materials (e.g., loess, cemented sands, peats and organicsoils, etc.) and the use of statistical information in evaluating anomalous data and obtaining design values for soil and rock properties. An appendix of three detailed soil and rock property selection examples is provided which illustrate the application of the methods described in the document.
17. Key Words
 Soil properties, rock properties, laboratory testing,in-situ testing, subsurface investigation, data quality,data interpretation, shear strength, consolidation,hydraulic conductivity, modulus
18. Distribution Statement
 No restrictions. This document is available to the public from theNational Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia22161
.
 
19. Security Classif. (of this report)
Unclassified
 
20. Security Classif. (of this page)
Unclassified
 
21. No. of Pages
385
22. Price
 
Form DOT F 1700.7
(8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized
 
 
i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to express their appreciation to Mr. Jerry A. DiMaggio, P.E. of the U.S.Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) for providing significanttechnical assistance and review during preparation of the document. The authors would also like tothank Messer’s Norman Norrish, P.Eng. and Duncan Wyllie, P.Eng. of Wyllie & Norrish Rock Engineers for providing technical assistance on rock property evaluation. The authors would alsolike to thank the following individuals who reviewed the document and served on the TechnicalWorking Group for this project:
Richard Cheney, P.E. – FHWA (retired);
 Nari Abar – Geostructural Engineering, Inc.
David Shiells, P.E. – Virginia DOT;
Lawrence Pierson – Oregon DOT;
Sam Mansukhani – FHWA Midwestern Resource Center; and
Michelle Cribbs – FHWAThe authors would also like to acknowledge Geotesting Express Inc. for providing photographs.Finally, the authors would like to thank Mrs. Ann Taylor and Mr. Michael Harris of GeoSyntecConsultants who drafted the figures and assisted in the layout of the document.
 
 
ii
PREFACE
This document presents state-of-the-practice information on the evaluation of soil and rock  properties for geotechnical design applications. This document was prepared to providegeotechnical engineers with tools to assist in the rational development of subsurface investigation programs, as well as in the execution of laboratory and field testing programs involving soil androck, and interpretation of data from these programs. The document will be equally useful for structural engineers, engineering geologists, or geologists who may be responsible for field andlaboratory testing programs. This document addresses the entire range of materials potentiallyencountered in highway engineering practice, from soft clay to intact rock and variations of materials that fall between these two extremes.In reviewing texts and course materials that are currently available to the practicing engineer, it isrecognized that two important areas have not been sufficiently addressed. These are: (1) the use androle of in-situ testing; and (2) the interpretation of conflicting, contradicting, and inconsistent data.Regarding the first point, it is recognized that over the past 20 years, several in situ testingtechniques have moved from the arena of university research to routine engineering practice. In2002, in situ testing plays a critical role in assessing soil properties and, to a lesser extent, rock  properties, particularly by complementing laboratory-derived data. In this document detailedinformation on parameters measured, evaluation of data quality, and interpretation of properties are provided for conventional soil and rock laboratory testing, as well as in situ devices such as fieldvane testing, cone penetration testing, dilatometer, pressuremeter, and borehole jack. Regarding thesecond point, data resulting from the range of laboratory and in situ tests are often not completelyconsistent with other data obtained for the project and/or soil deposit. This document provides thedesign engineer with information that can be used to develop a rationale for accepting or rejectingdata and for resolving inconsistencies between data provided by different laboratories and field tests.This document relies on previous good practice in the evaluation of soil and rock properties. Thisgood practice is extended by more recent developments in the areas of engineering propertyevaluation methods by including: (1) use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and PersonalData Assistance (i.e., handheld computer) devices for the collection and interpretation of subsurfaceinformation; (2) quantitative measures for evaluating disturbance of laboratory soil samples; and (3)use of measurements from seismic and geophysical testing techniques to obtain information on themodulus of soils for static deformation analyses. Other features of this document include a chapter on evaluating properties of special soil materials (e.g., loess, cemented sands, peats and organicsoils), a chapter on the use of statistical information in evaluating anomalous data and obtainingdesign values for soil and rock properties, and an appendix of three detailed soil and rock propertyselection examples which illustrate the application of the methods described in the document for  property evaluation.

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