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Human Computer Interfacing’

Human Computer Interfacing’

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Published by ARVIND
Human Computer Interfacing’
Human Computer Interfacing’

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Published by: ARVIND on Mar 30, 2010
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05/12/2014

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‘Human Computer Interfacing’
PREMBLEPREMBLE::
 This paper was mainly intended for the blind people who could not make use of computer efficienly, who could justinteract with computer only throughthethe 
braille displaybraille display
or the
knowledge of typing
. In order to facilitate them toconstrict the vulnerabilities that peep outthrough, while engaging with systemsecurity and data security (giving wrong passwords) and other security threatenapplications our paper could serve as analternative.
ABSTRACTABSTRACT::
The Acronym for 
 jaws
is “
Job Accesswith Speech
” .The first part of this paper introduces the necessity of 
refreshableBraille display
, device which rests on thekeyboard by means of raising dotsthrough holes in flat. .The second partfocuses on the
fundamentals of thespeech synthesis which converts text to
speech, and the speech units. The third part portrays the speech production by thevocal chords and
acoustic phonetics
. Thenext part is dealt with the detaileddescription onvarious converted
speech units (words,sylablles, demisylablles, diphone,allophone, phoneme
), the way in whichthese primitive speech units are combinedto form a
full speech
with
phoneticsounds
. The process indulged in theanalysis of speech signals and the varioussynthesis methods, the coding of vocal
tract parameters
using
LinearPredictive Coding (LPC)
synthesis withits block diagram. The fifth part is allabout
Automatic Speech Recognition(ASR) principles
and the stages involvedin it, speech unit’s synthesis influencing
“B
 
LISS to Blind” using “JAWS” SOFTWARE“BLISS to Blind” using “JAWS” SOFTWARE(A HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACING application)(A HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACING application)
 
factors .The later part discusses the
signalprocessing front end andparameterisation
and their feature, blocking and windowing.The sixth part discusses the various
speech recognition techniques,
and finally the
conclusion
part followed by
bibliography.
INDEX
Introduction
Why JAWS
Fundamentals of speech synthesis
Speech units
Speech production and Acousticunits Synthesis methods
INTRODUCTION:
The refreshable Braille display is anelectro-mechanical device for displayingBraille characters, usually by means of raising dots through holes in a flatsurface. The display sits under the
computer keyboard.
It is used to present text to computer users who are blind and cannot use anormal computer monitor.
Speechsynthesizers
are also commonly used for the same task, and a blind user mayswitch between the two systemsdepending on circumstances. Because of the complexity of producing a reliabledisplay that will cope with daily wear andtear, these displays are expensive.Usually, only 40 or 80 Braille cells aredisplayed. Models with 18-40 cells existin some note taker devices. On somemodels the position of the cursor isrepresented by vibrating the dots, andsome models have a switch associatedwith each cell to move the cursor to thatcell directly. The mechanism which raisesthe dots uses the
piezo effect
. Somecrystals expand, when a voltage is appliedto them. Such a crystal is connected to alever, which in turn raises the dot. Therehas to be such a Crystal for each dot of the display, i.e., eight crystals per character.The software that controls the display iscalled a
screen reader
. It gathers thecontent of the screen from the operatingsystem converts it into Braille charactersand sends it to the display. Screen readersfor graphical operation systems areespecially complex, because graphicalelements like windows and slide barshave to be interpreted and described intext form. A new development, called therotating wheel Braille display, wasdeveloped in 2000 by the NationalInstitute of Standards and TechnologyAnd is still in the process of commercialization. Braille dots are put on
 
the edge of a spinning wheel, whichallows the blind user to read continuouslywith a stationary finger while the wheelspins at a selected speed. The Braille dotsare set in a simple scanning style fashionas the dots on the wheel spins past a
stationary actuator
that sets the Braillecharacters. As a result, manufacturingcomplexity is greatly reduced androtating wheel Braille display will bemuch more inexpensive than traditionalBraille displays.
FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEECHSYNTHESIS:Speech synthesis
is the automaticgeneration of speech waveforms based onan input text to synthesize and on previously
analyzed digital speech data
.The critical issues for current speechsynthesizers concerns trade-offs amongthe conflicting demands of maximizingthe quality of speech, while minimizingmemory space, algorithmic complexity,and computation speed. The text might beentered by keyboard or optical character recognition or obtained from a storeddatabase. Speech synthesizers thenconvert the text into a sequence of speechunits by lexical access routines. Usinglarge speech units such as phrases andsentences can give high quality outputspeech but requires much more memory.A block diagram of the steps in speechsynthesis is shown below.Speech units are retrieved andconcatenated to output the syntheticspeech. Speech is often modeled as theresponse of a time varying linear filter (corresponding to the vocal tract from theglottis to the lips) to an excitation
 
Fig : A Blind Person CommunicatingWith The ComputerFig: block diagram of text tospeech synthesis

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