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Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

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Published by: ARVIND on Mar 30, 2010
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09/20/2010

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
R.RAGHUVEER3/4 ECEBAPATLA ENGINEERING COLLEGEBAPATLAraghu_veer144@yahoo.co.inK.KRISHNA SUSEELA3/4 ECEBAPATLA ENGINEERING COLLEGEBAPATLAsusi_madhu@yahoo.co.in
THE TRUE SIGN OF
INTELLIGENCE
IS NOT
KNOWLEDGE
BUT
IMAGINATION
.
 
1. ABSTRACT
This paper overviews the past, present and futureof the conceptual machines with emotionalintelligence. Past covers the background, thedebate and discussions whether Man is a Machine.Can machines be creative? How intelligent arehuman beings? Can machines match the reality?Or is it all an headache without a head? ThePresent outlines how far we have come and whythe time has come for society to build emotionalmachines. Further, it also gives an introduction toemotion modeling, generation and expression informs that would be most acceptable to society. Itelaborates some of the attributes and featurescould make machines more human like. Last butnot the least, an inspirational for the future.
2. INTRODUCTION
A
rtificial Intelligence is a branch of 
Science
, whichdeals with helping machines, finds solutions tocomplex problems in a more human-like fashion.This generally involves borrowing characteristicsfrom human intelligence, and applying them asalgorithms in a computer friendly way. Today, peopleare interacting more and more with computers. Life isrunning at a microchip speed. If all computers arestopped for a day, complete civilization comes to ahalt! Fifty years ago, this might've been a sciencefiction, but today it is a reality. Further, withComputers being embedded in all of our lifeaccessories like mobiles, watches, cars, even ourbodies and brains there is no indication that thismicrochip speed will not be multiplied in the future.Over the last decade, these electronic tiny minusculesignals have fundamentally revolutionized the waywe live. People are spending more hours per day withmachines than humans. An amazing a human-machine relationship is developing. So far this bondhas been one sided because the ability to generate,recognize and express emotions are a uniqueprerogative of living human beings. If thisintelligence or abstract attribute could be taught tomachines, it would re-conceptualize the perception of machines. It will fundamentally change the way wewill life, in the third millennium.We taught machines how toread, speak and understand humans by voices, actionsand events. Now we are fast approaching a stagewhere we will have to impart intelligence to makethese non biological machines a part of living beingsfamily. Further, diminishing the difference betweenliving and non living , biological and non biological.The intelligence attributes could be Emotions,Creativity and Spirituality.
3. IS MAN A MACHINE? A ROBOT?
Doctors see man as a neurological and biologicalsystem. Mathematicians consider man a collection of logic and computational devices. IntelligentComputer Experts call them interactive robots.Artists see human as a God, while some just asAnimal. Computers are Computing Machines.Computation work is done by making relations.Computers Compute, The best possible relation to doa particular task or process. Is thinking just makingrelations? Is thinking an art or science?Grandfather of computers, the calculators werebasically invented to assist calculations. Nowadays,Super computers with AI (artificial intelligence)algorithms; try to imitate the logical working of human brains. Thinking refers to a huge abstraction,an infinite circle whose circumference engulfseverything and whose center is in every human brain.Taking information, decisions and ability to learn canbe regarded as thinking. For all such activities, weneed to logical operations like compare, duplicate,store, calculate, remember and order. Yes, computerscan do all this! Comparison is also the key, which
 
 
Fig1: Human brain with parallel combination of neurons & parallel combination of chips
 
in amachine
Opens the door of emotions like makes us happy, sador even jealous.To make this emotions come true amachine’s active centre should be connected inparallel as in human’s neural system.
4. CAN MACHINES BE CREATIVE?
Thinking leads to creativity, something that cangenerate myriads of emotions in mind and soul. Canthese computers generate that creativity in them?They might've beaten Gary Kasparvich once, but willthey be ever able to match the genius of Einstein?Can they create such wondrous theories? Can theycreate paintings like Picasso? Can they deliver somebeautiful thinking philosophies or Karl Marx,Mahatma Gandhi? Creativity requires some magicalgift, which cannot be explained by logicaldisintegration. Some intelligent technocrats mayargue that beauty or creativity is in the eyes of beholder. A newborn baby is independent of emotions likes and dislikes. Emotions are not at thecore, they are governed by instincts. Which dofamily, society, culture and life style around usinduce in us?Then why the masterpieces of creativity,Beauty, say TajMahal is beautiful for every personbreathing on this planet. Art, lives through thecenturies, they never die. Why? Is it because we havebeen told that TajMahal is beautiful? Isn’t it asbeautiful to you as it is to me? It comes natural, justsources of thought are not just instincts but somewhatdeeper in how the brain works. Is it possible for anymachine to replace the joy of watching the masterbatsman Sachin Tendulkar hitting six runs on ShaneWarne's googly?Everyone in this world is not equal because of some combination of skills. These skills aredeveloped by the finer aspects of family and socialenvironment.
5. HOW INTELLIGENT IS A MAN?
Our ancestors named the genius that knew all theseabstractions as God. Can we find another name to it?How many years will it take for the mankind to getcloser to that name? With in a century, Geneticengineering will enable us to manufacture ourselves just like we have car factories. But will these twoindividuals have same level of intellect and vision?Who hasn't heard of Great Physicist StephenHawkins, How is biological state of man related tointelligence?In science, math's the vast majority of theories works on the hypothesis. Science and Math'sare just a belief like religion; no doubt it has attainedgreat heights. We do owe a great respect for thesepostulates because they have greatly assistedmankind reach this level of communications andluxury. But in a wider perspective this possibilityappears to be a headache without a head.What is thinking? How does brain works? How arethe thoughts processed into actions? If scientists don'teven know how exactly the brain works? How canthe replicate the behavior or working of the brain? If a machine can't really think a situation, rather just actin a sequence of actions programmed; so, since weare progressing only from a single perspective. Andthis is not thinking. We can never determine if we areon right track if we do not analyze from differentperspectives.May be one can tell what he/she can orcannot do, But can one predict what he/she can notdo? Or what he/she is going to do tomorrowmorning? Is it comprehensible to calculate thispermutation and combinations of infinitepossibilities? Every word meaning is depends uponthe readers or listener's mind. The human wish of being the originator, the creator.
6. REALITY AND EMOTOINS
.Humans have a very wide range of emotions. Canwe define each emotion? Is it possible to a nonhumanto differentiate between disappointed and sadness? Isit possible to create a help book by defining allemotions? Can emotions be defined? Can it berelated by readers? How can we explain an emotionalcondition or state? Are emotions generic orindividualistic? A single act can generate differentemotions in different individuals. How far is thedependency of emotions to individual only to hiscultural background? What factors like currentenvironment or state of activity around? Emotions
 
 like confused, happiness, sadness, anger can be easilyrelated to but what about others? The mixedemotions? Happiness during fight is not possible,however a ironical, humorous sarcastic remark ispossible? How will a machine decipher that?How will the people react to such machines? How farwill this injected intelligence take machines? willthey make our car a horse? What is the limit?Wonder if this subject is like which camefirst, egg or the hen? Anyway, There is nothingwrong with in this debate yet. The nature of being isto believe what we expect to believe, and to perceivewhat we believe is true. But perception is based onthe senses so we will not succeed in creating "human-like" machines until we can expect it as a truth.Likewise, our approach is correct until we perceive itas false.In a crowded movie theatre, while watching amovie, one gets wrapped up in the story as if it wasreally happening, and this is referred to as asuspension of disbelief. The longer the suspension,the more real it is. When the general public ceases todisbelieve the robot, then we have begun to succeed.The reorientation of growth and development of living and non-living be in one direction. In future,Will robots become a part of us, rather than one of them?
7. REALITYCHECK:HEADACHE WITHOUT AHEAD?
Once there was a stump of tree, and in the dark athief came that way and said, "That is a police man".A young man waiting for his beloved saw it andthought that it was his sweetheart. A child, who hasbeen told about ghost stories, took it for ghost andbegan to shriek. But all the time it was a stump of tree.It is the purpose of the intellect to give us adetached view against which we can assess theobjective clearly and decisively. To some extent it isin the nature of technology to narrow our vision andgive it focus. Tragedy comes when we forget thatthese limitations and that the intellect cancomprehend things as whole. For many centuries,scientists worked their theories believing sunrevolves round the earth. Only later to be realizing itwas exactly the opposite. As long as we see only apart of the picture, logic and argumentation can neversettle an issue. When the intellect becomes calm andclear, theory gives way to the demonstration.Although the concept of an emotional machine isday-by-day becoming more convincing andcompelling but the concept is very raw. The ideaneeds to be turned and looked upon from variousdifferent sides, examined carefully, analyzed, re-analyzed, polished and delivered again. Successneeds as much attention to the means of work as to itsend. Our defect in vision is that we are drawn somuch to the ideal, the goal is so much enchanting, somuch more alluring that we lose sight of detailsaltogether. It is just like pottery. If the idea isstronger, it will carry the resiliency later. The shineand enthusiasm is there; the means are some howlater, deeper, after processing.Concepts are conceived and driven bythe needs, nature and human behavior. Societysupports all the concepts, which become followers of economy or progress. The great industrial revolutionwas flourished by mechanical ideas of machines of developing how things would work and whatmachines could do to improve our lives. Today, weare involved in the technology that will take ussoaring further, again upwards and towards the top.
8. BUILDING EMOTIONAL MACHINES
An emotional machine can be described as softwareor a hardware that can recognize, express and evengenerate its own emotions. The purpose is tounderstand the behavior of machine user(s) andaccordingly facilitate an emotional smoother andmore intuitive interaction with him. Basically its arobot, that is empowered to understand the mentalstate of a user and interact in a more sensitive way.However it is not easy to dissect human behavior andto build objects that would perform operations like:
if (user) == sad then offer(coffee)and play (blues!)else ask("howdy man?!whatsup?");
Every human being is dynamic in interaction; everyset of action can correspond to thousands of possiblevariables. Further, there are different cultures andindividual factors, which have interestingly kept this"emotional" aspect of human behavior abstract.Modeling emotions or emotional states could be verychallenging. Even modern day disintegratingparadigms like object oriented thinking, or thetraditional school of Psychology and human behaviorhave failed to categorize emotions into type andcategories. However, on the basis of actions-reaction,these emotions can be understood in the form of layers. The interaction may not offer a completesolution but will definitely reduce complexity to alesser difficult variable arrays. The arrays should begeneric and independent of situation, context andcultural background and environment around theparticular user.

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