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Digital Water Marking

Digital Water Marking

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Published by: ARVIND on Mar 30, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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G.Leela Sankar, III B.Tech, ECE, P.Jnananand, III B.Tech, ECE,
JNTUCE, Kakinada. JNTUCE, Kakinada.
In the wake of increasing copyright misuses, severalnew technologies are developed to preserve theauthentication of information. Digital water markingis one of them. It is a technique that allows us to addhidden copyright notices, verification messages orany other useful information to the original signal.The hidden message can be a group of bits thatdescribe something about the signal or about thegenuine author of the signal. The description can beabout the name, place or something related to this.Much of the research work has been done in the fieldof digital watermarking in the recent period of time.In this paper, a brief description about various digitalwater marking techniques for different media types isgiven. Watermark insertion and watermark decodingis described as well. The watermarking techniquesdescribed for various media types include audiowater marking, video water marking, image watermarking and text water marking. Some of theproperties and applications are also discussed.
 To begin with, the meaning of “watermark”(on apaper) is a mark that is not perceptible to the nakedeye in ordinary circumstances but is visible whenfocused through a special light. A digital watermarked signal is also difficult to differentiate fromthe original signal normal circumstances. In fact,there should be no detectable difference between theoriginal signal and watermarked signal. The desire tocommunicate secretly is a human trait that dates back to the earliest times. This led to the invention of steganography at first and encryption later on. Beforethe origin of watermarking technique, there were twotechniques called “steganography” and “encryption”.Steganography takes its origin from the old Greek language that means ‘cover writing’. It is nothing but,a way of transmitting hidden messages between twopersons. Encryption is used to providecommunication privacy and deny access tounauthorized persons from damaging the content.The usage of the watermark does not limit the usageof the original file in any way. Watermarking canbasically be classified into visible and invisiblewatermarking. Visible watermarking obviouslyincludes usage of logos, trademarks and other relatedthings for unique identification. Invisiblewatermarking is classified basing on the ability towithstand attacks, into robust and fragilewatermarking. Fragile watermark is capable of detecting any minute transformation made to thewatermarked content of the host signal. It is easy toembed this into the signal. This can be accomplishedby accommodating it in the unimportant portions of the original data. But it cannot withstand wide rangeof attacks. For the applications wherein wide range of attacks needs to be tolerated, a robust watermark isused.Original watermark F
F’’Host H
DecodedConfidential signal
key F”’CFig 1: block diagram of a watermarking systemRobust watermarking techniques are especially usefulfor military applications, authentication, copyrightprotection and so forth. Herein, the watermark isplaced in the significant portion of the data to bewatermarked.All in all, the digital watermarking techniques areexpected to withstand assails including compression,
Watermark embeddingDistortionmedium
A/D and D/A conversion, linear and non-linearfiltering and additive noise as well.
Digital audio watermarking
 Herein, the watermark i.e. the digital audiowatermark consists of the information pertaining notonly to the creator of the audio information that couldbe any one of several forms of song, music etc., butalso to the authenticated user of the audioinformation. This allows that particular informationto be used by only the authorized user and no oneelse. The watermark can also be used for secondaryapplications other than authentication. e.g. providinginformation about the song, album, style of tunes, etc.This watermark is useful in voice conferencing hallsto indicate the person who is speaking at the moment.This application can be extended to videoconferencesas well.The method of inserting watermark consists of concealing the watermark in the low frequencycomponents of the message signal (audio signal), sothat the insertion of watermark is not noticeable bythe human ear.
Fig 2.block diagram for audio watermark insertion
At first, the audio signal to be processed ispartitioned into some frames, allotting afinite time interval to each frame.
Following this, analysis is done to calculatethe spectral components, which isaccomplished using FFT, more often thannot. This process also allows us to find outthe power contained in each frame, which isuseful in the later parts of the method.
From the above calculations, the lowfrequency components are removed fromthe signal.
Now, the watermark is placed in the lowfrequency region, where the low frequencycomponents are removed earlier on.This finishes the process of inserting thewatermark in the audio file. Now that theprocess of insertion is accomplished, the userhas to extract the watermark and get it verifiedwith his license to access the information in theaudio file. The process of extraction of watermark is similar to the process of insertingthe watermark as well.
Fig 3. Block diagram for removal of watermark from the audio watermarked file.
The watermarked signal to be processed issubjected to framing of some finite duration.This amount of time must be the same asthat of duration during insertion process.
Once again, spectral analysis is carried outusing techniques such as FFT, to calculatethe low frequency components and thepower constituted in each frame as well.
From the above analysis, the powercontained in the low frequency componentsis observed which determines thewatermark.Ideally, this watermark should be exactreproduction of the original watermark that wasinserted during insertion process. This issubjected to certain constraints like power ineach frame.
3.2 Digital video watermarking
A watermark inserted in a video signal can be usedfor DVD copy protection. First of all, the watermark 
Analysis forspectral comp.PartitioningInto framesElimination of lowfrequency comp.Insertion of watermark 
Partitioninginto framesAnanlysisusing FFTCarrierprocessing
should satisfy the requirements of strength andimperceptibility. Besides this, it can be bestowed onto convey the information to restrict copying in manyways such as copy never i.e. the DVD is copyprotected, copy no more i.e. it is possible to copy afinite number of times, copy liberally i.e. it can becopied any number of times, copy only once. Thedesign depends upon the content in the DVD.Ageneral process of digital video watermarkingconsists of inserting a group of bits along with thevideo frame to be transmitted. The process of insertion of watermark is through a ‘hidden key’ thatis known to the transmitting person and the receivingperson as well.actual video signal
watermarkedsignal to betransmitted
watermark hidden keyFig 4.video watermark insertionActual video signal refers to a single image of avideo sequence.Now that, the watermark is inserted into an image of a video sequence, it is susceptible to wide range of attacks in the channel through which it is transmitted.These attack could include deliberate attacks andattacks by chance, i.e. not deliberately done. Some of the deliberate attacks are reducing frames, conspiracyand geometric attacks. Herein, the signal is notcompletely damaged or distorted beyond use, for thepirate who attacks thus would like to use it anyway.Other range of attacks that the signal could suffer isthose that arise from the errors due to transmissionand also due to errors generated during processing of the signal. Now, the process of extraction or removalof watermark is an intricate process. This processconsists of extraction of watermark from the receivedwatermarked signal, provided the ‘hidden key’ isknown.By the time the signal arrives at thewatermarking process, it might in a compressed formi.e. it might have undergone compression techniques.Compression is a technique that reduces the storagespace required for a digital form of the video signal.This is essential to meet the bandwidth requirements.So it is necessary that the watermark signal beinserted directly into this signal, which in compressedform without having to decode the video signal toreduce intricacy.Received signalwatermark Hidden keyFig 5. Extraction of watermark from watermarkedsignalThis is accomplished by changing the span of thecodes and subsequently inserting the watermark. Thiseases the insertion process. The drawback to thisprocess is that the watermark is vulnerable to removeentirely at the time of detection. To make thewatermark stable even after detection, the watermark is inserted by imposing energy differences betweendifferent parts of a video signal.
3.3 Image watermarking
:For watermarking a still image, the watermark isdirectly inserted on to the picture information itself such as colour, brightness, and luminescence etc. thewatermark may be inserted directly on to the pixels,which are either in the spatial domain or in thetransform domain. Earliest form of spatial domaintechniques consists of inserting a finite number of sequences of bits into the least significant data of thehost signal. This type of insertion provides forefficient visible insertion technique. Anotheradvantage of using this technique is that theimplementation requires very low cost. Later on thistechnique was extended to two dimensions as well.This also proved to be an effective fragilewatermarking technique. While decoding, acorrelation detector is used for the retrieval of watermark. Another method where a correlationdetector is used does the watermarking byintroducing a texture-based watermark into theregion, which is quite identical to the original image.This enhances the transparency between thewatermarked and the actual image.

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