A/D and D/A conversion, linear and non-linearfiltering and additive noise as well.
WATERMARKING FOR VARIOUSMEDIA TYPES TECHNIQUES
Digital audio watermarking
Herein, the watermark i.e. the digital audiowatermark consists of the information pertaining notonly to the creator of the audio information that couldbe any one of several forms of song, music etc., butalso to the authenticated user of the audioinformation. This allows that particular informationto be used by only the authorized user and no oneelse. The watermark can also be used for secondaryapplications other than authentication. e.g. providinginformation about the song, album, style of tunes, etc.This watermark is useful in voice conferencing hallsto indicate the person who is speaking at the moment.This application can be extended to videoconferencesas well.The method of inserting watermark consists of concealing the watermark in the low frequencycomponents of the message signal (audio signal), sothat the insertion of watermark is not noticeable bythe human ear.
Fig 2.block diagram for audio watermark insertion
At first, the audio signal to be processed ispartitioned into some frames, allotting afinite time interval to each frame.
Following this, analysis is done to calculatethe spectral components, which isaccomplished using FFT, more often thannot. This process also allows us to find outthe power contained in each frame, which isuseful in the later parts of the method.
From the above calculations, the lowfrequency components are removed fromthe signal.
Now, the watermark is placed in the lowfrequency region, where the low frequencycomponents are removed earlier on.This finishes the process of inserting thewatermark in the audio file. Now that theprocess of insertion is accomplished, the userhas to extract the watermark and get it verifiedwith his license to access the information in theaudio file. The process of extraction of watermark is similar to the process of insertingthe watermark as well.
Fig 3. Block diagram for removal of watermark from the audio watermarked file.
The watermarked signal to be processed issubjected to framing of some finite duration.This amount of time must be the same asthat of duration during insertion process.
Once again, spectral analysis is carried outusing techniques such as FFT, to calculatethe low frequency components and thepower constituted in each frame as well.
From the above analysis, the powercontained in the low frequency componentsis observed which determines thewatermark.Ideally, this watermark should be exactreproduction of the original watermark that wasinserted during insertion process. This issubjected to certain constraints like power ineach frame.
3.2 Digital video watermarking
A watermark inserted in a video signal can be usedfor DVD copy protection. First of all, the watermark
Analysis forspectral comp.PartitioningInto framesElimination of lowfrequency comp.Insertion of watermark