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Replace Silicon With Nanotechnology

Replace Silicon With Nanotechnology

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Published by: ARVIND on Mar 30, 2010
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Replace Silicon with Nanotechnology 
D.Srikanth G.Srikanth
B.Tech, IV Year CSIT, B.Tech, IV Year CSIT,Chirala Engineering College, Chirala Engineering College,Chirala 523157, Chirala 523157,srikanthdaggubati@yahoo.co.in srikanthgullapalli@yahoo.co.in 
Dept. of.
 Replace Silicon with Nanotechnology
 Abstract –
Nanotechnology, a
groundbreakingdesign for future Nano-electronics whichenable
'low-cost, high yield fabrication'.
Acompletely new way of designing an electronicinterconnect for nano-scale circuits usingcoding theory, by using a cross-bararchitecture.
The design consists of a pair of parallel wires crossed by a second set of wires.Together they create a switch that can deliverthe functions currently assigned to transistorson silicon processors. Each latch is incrediblytiny, only a few microns wide. The crossbarlatch design is "well-suited to tolerate theinevitable defects that are bound to occur inthe fabrication process at such tinydimensions" because it doesn't require thesame level of precision as silicon circuits.Nanotechnology in the crossbar latch couldunleash "new functions in a circuit", at suchsizes "quantum mechanics takes over" and"electrons behave more like waves thanparticles".INTRODUCTION
Nanotechnology is essential to getting aroundthe approaching problems in silicon productionthat will slow, or even halt the pace of processordevelopment defined by Moore's Law . A newway to design future nano-electronic circuitsusing '
coding theory
', an approach currentlybeing used in certain computer storage andtelecommunications applications. The resultcould be nearly perfect manufacturing yieldswith equipment a thousand times less expensivethan what might be required using futureversions of current technologies. Believe futurechips will have to rely, at least in part, on the'
cross-bar architecture
Believe future chips will have to rely, at least in
Figure 1.1. Cross-bar architecture.
 part, on the '
cross-bar architecture
' as shown inthe figure 1.1, in which a set of parallel'
nanoscale wires
' are laid atop another set of parallel wires at approximately a 90 degreeangle, sandwiching a layer of electricallyswitchable material in between. Where thematerial becomes trapped between the crossingwires, they can form a switch that represents a"1" or "0," the basic building blocks of computercode. The design consists of a pair of parallelwires crossed by a second set of wires. Togetherthey create a switch that can deliver the functionscurrently assigned to transistors on siliconprocessors. Each latch is incredibly tiny, only afew microns wide. The crossbar latch design is"well-suited to tolerate the inevitable defects thatare bound to occur in the fabrication process atsuch tiny dimensions" because it doesn't requirethe same level of precision as silicon circuits.
characteristics with high on–off ratios andreversible switching properties were observed.Such devices may function as basic elements forfutureultradense electronic circuitry.
Molecularelectronics offers the tantalizing prospect of eventually building circuits with criticaldimensions of a fewnanometersUsing electronic devices created by trapping anelectrically switchable layer only a few atomsthick between crossed wires, a bit of memory canbe stored or a logic function can be performed ateach intersection of wires.Standard semiconductor circuits require three-terminal transistors to perform the 'NOToperation' and restore signals. However, it isgenerally believed transistors will not function atsizes of a few nanometers and that is why thereis a practical limit to their miniaturization. Amicroscopic device consisting of a single wireacting as a signal line, crossed by two controllines with an electrically switchable molecular-scale junction where they intersect. By applyinga sequence of voltage impulses to the controllines and using switches of opposite polarities,the latch can perform the NOT function essentialfor general computing operations.In addition, it can restore a logic level in a circuitto its ideal voltage value, allowing a designer tochain many simple gates together to perform anarbitrary computation, a working memory withmolecular-scale junctions and logic devices thatcould perform simple logic operations such asAND and OR.
Nanoscale molecular-electronic devicescomprising a single molecular monolayer of bistable[2]rotaxanes sandwiched between two40-nm metal electrodes were fabricated usingimprintlithography. Bistable current–voltage
Figure 2.1.An atomic force micrograph of a nanoscale cross-point molecular devicewith an insert showing the details of the crosspoint
An atomic force microscope (AFM) image of across-point molecular device fabricated withimprint lithography process is shown inFigure2.1. In order to achieve nanometer lateralresolution, a carbon nanotube tip was used as theAFM probe. Only the region near the active partof the device, comprising the two crossednanowires and their connections to themicroscale wires, is shown in the image. Thenanowires have a measured width of ~40 nm,which is consistent with the 40-nm width of thenanowires templates in the mold. A high-resolution image of the crossed electrodesshows the active junction area of ~40 nmX40nm.

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