A device that forwards data packetsalong networks. A router is connected to at leasttwo networks, commonly two LANs or a LANand its ISP’s (internet service provider) network.Routers are located at gateways, the placeswhere two or more networks connect. Routers inhouseholds are commonly connected to a modemand transmit data packets to othercomputers/laptops which can receive the datawith PC air cards, bridges, or another type of device.
PC air cards
PC air cards are adaptorsused to pull in data which is transmitted from arouter or other wireless source. You slide thedevice into your notebook's PC Card slot andthen you are able to access a wireless
network with your notebook computer, whileretaining true mobility. Once you're
connected, you can keep in touch with your e-mail, access the Internet, and share files andother resources such as printers and network storage with other computers on the network.Another similar device is a USB network adaptor. The device performs the same functionsbut is installed into a USB slot instead.
There are numerous applications for all thedifferent wireless technologies. For the purposesof this paper, applications of wirelesstechnologies are divided into the following:
Voice and messaging,
Hand-held and other Internet-enableddevices, and
Data Networking.Although a traditional classification, this way of categorizing wireless technologies also includestheir differences in cost models, bandwidth,coverage areas, etc. Finally, a section is includedon issues related to wireless technologies.
Voice and Messaging
Cell phones, pagers, and commercial two-waybusiness radios can provide voice and messagingservices. These devices may be based on analogor digital standards that differ primarily in theway in which they process signals and encodeinformation. The analog standard is theAdvanced Mobile Phone
Service (AMPS).Digital standards are Global System for MobileCommunications (GSM), Time
Multiple Access (TDMA), or Code DivisionMultiple Access (CDMA) Normally, devicesoperate within networks that providemetropolitan, statewide, or nationwide coverage.These operate in different frequency bandswhich are allocated by the FCC. Throughputdepends on the standard being used, butpresently in the U.S., these networks operatethroughput rates up to 16 kilobits per second(Kbps)
FIGURE: VOICE MESSAGING
New digital standards, also referred to as"Third-Generation Services" or 3G, are expectedby 2004, and will provide 30 times faster transferrates and enhanced capabilities. Because of themany standards, there are interoperability issuesbetween networks, carriers, and devices.Generally, charges are based on per minuteutilization or per number of messages.