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OMAE2009-80013

OMAE2009-80013

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1 Copyright © 2009 by ASME
Proceedings of the ASME 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic EngineeringOMAE2009May 31 - June 5, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
OMAE2009-80013
MEASUREMENTS IN CIRCULAR WAVE TANK WITH ACTIVE GENERATORS
Joao Alcino de Andrade Martins
Department of Naval and Ocean EngineeringPolytechnic School, University of São PauloSao Paulo, SP, Brasil
ABSTRACT
This paper discusses some aspects of the new technology intesting tank for Naval and Ocean Engineering developed atNAOE-Osaka University, Japan, based on the concept of activewavemakers all around the tank perimeter [1]. Past and presentmeasurements shown that the wave field is homogeneous withsome restrictions and can keep irregular wave more than 50wave periods. The experimental results for platform modeldiffraction force are good and agree with theory and also withearly tests [7]. The analyses of wave and platform model forcemeasurements prove the new wave tank concept precision,usefulness and reliability.
1. INTRODUCTION
Since early ages of Naval and Ocean Engineering, one of themost important facilities used in experimental works has beenthe tank concept used by William Froude back in the middle of XIX century. The test tank main purpose is to generate aspecified wave field at a desired location. To do so, within acertain degree of quality, is difficult due to wave reflections andre-reflections, coming from wave generator board, tank walls,model and devices into the water.The wave reflections must be avoided, backward and forward,down to a required level, to maintain a required spectrum and,to make possible to generate waves during long periods of time.In general, this is very important, if not feasibility determinant,in non linear and second order phenomena investigations.These facilities are commonly very long, hundreds of meters,wide tenths of meters and some meters deep. New OceanEngineering facilities have been built but they are still similar tothe old ones, except to much less long and more wide and deep,approaching a short rectangle or square geometry. Rectangularlayouts also have been the same, providing a free and still watersurface with a wave generator at one end and a wave energyabsorber at the other end with two plane and fixed sidewalls.One improvement in Ocean Engineering tanks is to installanother wave generator at one sidewall and another waveenergy absorber at the other sidewall.The wave generator, or wavemaker, has evolved from a singlepiece to a many segments one, making possible to generatewaves in variable heading angles into the tank. This kind of wavemaker is known as multi directional and can simulatedshort crested sea at almost any location into the tank, using alsowave reflections from the sidewall.The wave energy absorber is often made of wood, concrete orsteel mesh, like a flat, sloping surface similar to the real naturalwave energy absorber, or the so called beach. Some otherimprovements simulate roughness using in the absorber surfacecoarse sand, pebbles, thin wood plank steps, metal shavings,steel wire and some sort of other unusual materials. The slopingsurface has been determined around 1:10 inclination, as themost often used, and the best compromise between space intothe tank and performancein absorption. Later, a differentconcept was introduced using several layers of fixed uprightperforated stainless steel sheets or metal wire frame withvariable porosity to absorb wave energy and save expensive andprecious space into the tank.New developments in Control and Electronics area brought theactive wavemaker which can generate and absorb wavessimultaneously, and can eliminate re-reflections that causesinterferences in the specified wave field.Nowadays, considering the high costs of long and big tank, andthe development of controlled active wavemaker, the proposalof smaller tank came into discussion.This paper presents some results of wave and forcemeasurements in small circular tank with the purpose to assessthe reliability and precision of this new Ocean Engineeringfacility, to prove the validity of the circular test tank technology.
 
2 Copyright © 2009 by ASME
2. ELEMENTS FROM THEORY
A floating body can be designed to produce an outgoing wavewhen oscillating on a still water surface and generate controlledwave as required. Also, a floating body can be designed tooscillate as required when subjected to an incoming wave.Using the well known Ordinary Strip Method it is possible torelate floating body geometry and single degree of freedomlumped parameters model to body movement and incomingwave. These two distinct situations can be superposed and theywill be detailed ahead. The formulation ahead is due toProfessor Naito and co-workers [1, 5, 6] already published andcondensed here.
2.1. Wave Generation by a Floating Body
A floating body forced to oscillate in a still water surface by anexternal dynamic system represented by spring and dashpot inFigure 1, generates outgoing waves. Generically, this is calledplunger wavemaker and one special kind of oscillating floatingbody has the cross sectional shape according to curves proposedby Lewis [2].Figure 1 – Illustration of floating body driven by externalsystem moving vertically and producing an outgoing wave.The full theory to express the plunger wavemaker performance,due to Wang [3], can be found elsewhere, and in short it can bederived, for an ideal fluid, from:
0
2
=
φ 
 
and 
 
0
2
=
ϕ 
(1)being
φ 
the velocity potential and
φ
the associated streamfunction. In a tank there are lateral walls and bottom where theboundaries are fixed and impermeable.The linearized mathematical expression for these conditions, aswell as the kinematic and dynamic free surface conditions are,respectively, given by:
0
==
=
 z
 zn
φ φ 
(2a)
0
0
=
    
+
=
 z
 z
φ η 
(2b)
0
0
=+
    
=
η φ 
g
 z
(2c)knowing that
 z
 
is the vertical axis pointing upward, referred atthe still free surface,
n
is the normal unit vector,
 
is the waterdepth,
η 
is the wave elevation,
g
is the gravity vector and
istime.Taking the slow motion and small amplitude case, eliminating
η 
 
it comes:
01
022
=
+
=
 z
g z
φ φ 
(3)Supposing vertical symmetrical oscillation undergoing smalldisplacement expressed by
 z=z
0
cos(
ω
t+
ε
)
, with
ω
thefrequency and
ε
the phase, and also the wave profile being
η 
=
η 
a
cos(kx-
ω 
t)
 
, with
the wave number, then:
)sin(
0
ε ω ω 
+=
 z z
(4a)
0
02
=
+
=
 z
g z
φ ω φ 
(4b)where
ω
2
=g.k tan(kd)
is the dispersion relationship.Considering now the plunger wavemaker interface to the water,this floating body surface boundary condition can beapproximate to first order and then it follows that:
    
==
n zn z zn
φ φ 
(5)This equation means that the plunger surface fluid velocity,
,must be equal to the plunger forced oscillation velocity alongnormal direction from the body surface.According to Chakrabarti [4], to work out the solution it isneeded to consider the radiation condition, meaning theoutgoing wave far field is progressive wave; to make aconformal transformation, from the plunger plane to the unitcircle reference plane; to solve the normal velocity boundaryconditions at the floating body surface and finally linearizingthis condition, to get:
 A Btanarc kx z A x
with
h
=+=
ε ε ω η 
)sin(),(
0
(6)
 N 
e
(
ω 
)
Floating bodyMOutgoingwave
e
(
ω 
)
External dynamic system
a
η 
 
 z (t)
 
3 Copyright © 2009 by ASMEwhere
( )
12200
+==
 B Aka z A
ah
π η 
(7)being
 A
h
the non dimensional response of the Lewis floatingbody and
a
0
,
 A
and
 B
depend on surface curve and geometry, asdefined by Lewis.
2.2. Wave Absorption by Floating Body
 Considering the real case that the floating body is attached to anexternal dynamic system, represented by the parameters C
e
forthe spring and N
e
for the damper, subjected to an incomingwave that causes a vertical movement, presented in Figure 2.Figure 2 – Illustration of floating body coupled to an externalsystem moving vertically when subjected to an incoming wave.Then the equation of force balance for the heave motion of floating body under regular wave is as follows:
 Mz’’(t) = f 
h
(t) + f 
w
(t) + f 
c
(t)
(8)taking M as the mass and z’’(t) the vertical acceleration of thefloating body; f 
h
(t) hydrodynamic force, meaning the fluidreaction to body motion, f 
w
(t) wave exciting force, f 
c
(t) externalsystem force and t is time.The forces f 
h
(t), f 
c
(t), f 
w
(t) are known to be as follows:
 f 
h
(t) =-m(
ω
)z’’(t) - n(
ω
)z’(t) - cz(t)
(9)
 f 
c
(t) = -N 
e
(
ω
)z’(t) -C 
e
(
ω
)z(t)
(10)
 f 
w
(t) = (
η 
a
 ρ
g |A
h
(
ω
)|/k)exp{ i [
ω
t +
ε
h
(
ω
)]}
(11)where m(
ω
) added mass, n(
ω
) damping coefficient and crestoration coefficient of the floating body; C
e
(
ω
) springcoefficient and N
e
(
ω
) damping coefficient of the externaldynamic system;
η
a
amplitude of incident waves;
ε
h
(
ω
) phasedifference between wave and floating body vertical motion.Substituting equations 9, 10 and 11 into equation 8 led to:
(M+m(
ω
))z’’(t)+(N 
e
(
ω
)+n(
ω
))z’(t)+(c+C 
e
(
ω
))z(t)=
(12)
= (
η 
a
 ρ
g |A
h
(
ω
)|/k)exp{ i
ω
t +
ε
h
(
ω
)]}
Equation 12 is the equation 8 rewritten in terms of systemparameters and its solution describes the motion of floatingbody among the wave. This is done by taking
 z(t)=z
0
.exp(i
ω
t)
,substituting in 12, solving and after some manipulations it leadsto the following expression:
( )
2222 22222
)]()([]})([)]([{
ω ω ω ω ω ω  ω  ρ η 
n N cm M   Ag z
eehao
+++++ =
(13)This is the dimensionless vertical displacement response of thefloating body.To evaluate the power balance in the system, let first separatethe force done by the fluid in the floating body, [f 
h
(t)+f 
w
(t)].The power will be the unit time force developed in the externalsystem times the velocity, meaning this product must beintegrated over one period. Knowing that the force a floatingbody receives from the fluid, due to an incoming wave, isrepresented by equations 9 and 11, then:
( )
dt  z f  f 
wh f 
∫ 
+=
0
')]()([ 1
(14)As the values of cross terms are 0, and using
 z(t)=z
0
cos(
ω
t)
,equation 14 results in:
2)()(sin)( 1
20202202
 z N dt  z N 
ee f 
ω ω ω ω ω 
==
∫ 
(15)This is the power in the system induced by the wave but it isknown that the energy in the wave can be expressed by:
2
2
 paw
g
η  ρ 
=
(16)being
 p
= d 
ω
 /dk 
the wave phase velocity.The case of perfect energy transfer from wave to floating body,by the energy conservation principle, implies equation 15 mustbe equal to equation 16:
22)(
2202
 pae
g z N 
η  ρ ω ω 
=
(17)
e
(
ω 
)
 N 
e
(
ω) 
 
Floating bodyMExternal dynamic systemIncoming wave
z
0
 

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