T. R. S. WALSH*
CHARACTERIZING THE VERTEX NEIGHBOURHOODSOF SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA
A polyhedron [4, p. 4] or a plane tessellation [4, p. 58] is called
if its faces are regular polygons (thus all its edges are equal) and itsvertices are all surrounded alike. This implies that the cyclic sequence
S= (Pl,P2, ...,P~)
representing the degrees of the faces surrounding avertex must be the same for each vertex to within rotation and reflection.In this paper, we show that
the cyclic sequence S=(pl, P2,...,Pq) rep-resents the degrees of the faces surrounding each vertex of a semi-regularconvex polyhedron or tessellation of the plane if and only if:
(1) q>~ 3,
and every member of S is at least 3;
(2) . >/~ - 1,
with equality in the case of a plane tessellation,"
and for every odd number p in S, S contains a segment b, p, b.
Condition (1) is necessary because if q~<2, the figure consists of a singlepolygon; while any polygon with straight sides must have at least 3 of them.Condition (2) is necessary because the sum of the interior angles at avertex must be equal to one rotation if the figure is to lie in a plane, andmust be less than one rotation if the figure is to be strictly convex (convexwith no two adjacent faces lying in the same plane).The usual way in which all the semi-regular convex polyhedra and planetessellations are found is to eliminate solutions of (1) and (2) using separatearguments for each of several sets of solutions [6, pp. 116-26; 2, pp. 25-32;3, p. 394; 7, pp. 202-3], and then to prove that the solutions not eliminatedrepresent semi-regular tessellations of the plane or sphere.In , there appear: a short proof of the existence of these figures[pp. 405-8], a table [p. 434] and pictures [p. 439] of all but one of thesemi-regular convex polyhedra (the remaining one appears in [1, p. 137])as well as the known non-convex ones, and a table [p. 438] of all the semi-
* The author wishes to thank Prof. H. S. M. Coxeter for his numerous helpful suggestionsduring the preparation of this paper, and M. Burt for his assistance in preparing theplates.
1 (1972) 117-123.
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