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Job Design Assign

Job Design Assign

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Published by Jacob Onsare
Introduction to job enrichment
Introduction to job enrichment

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Published by: Jacob Onsare on Mar 30, 2010
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08/29/2013

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Jacob Onsare (2015273)
JOB DESIGN
Job design is the process of putting together various elements to form a job, bearing inmind organisational and individual worker requirements, as well considerations of health, safety and ergonomics. The scientific management of Frederick Winslow Taylor viewed job design as purely mechanistic, but the latter human relations movementrediscovered the importance of workers’ relationship to their work and stressed theimportance of job satisfaction.
Elements of job design
Job design integrates work content (tasks, function, relationships), the rewards(extrinsic and intrinsic) and the qualifications required (skills, knowledge, ability) for each job in a way that meets the needs of employees and organisation.Job design involves three steps namely:1.The specification of individual tasks2.Specification of the method of performing each task 3.The combination of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individualsThe key to successful job design lies in balancing the requirements of theorganisation and the job holder. The way a job is designed affects employee work  performance. It is crucial that organisations create an environment where workers aremotivated by jobs in which they feel challenged but at the same time, their work goeswith objectives of the company. Designing jobs properly will cause a positive impact onmotivation, performance and job satisfaction on those who perform them.According to the hierarchical scheme of five basic needs of A.H Maslow, people needto stay alive, to be safe, to be with others, to be respected and to do work that correspondsto their gifts and abilities.
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT APPROACH
Taylor’s four Principles of Scientific Management
After years of various experiments to determine optimal work methods, Taylor proposedthe following four principles of scientific management.1. Replace rule of thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific studyof the tasks.2. Scientifically select, train, and develop each worker rather than passivelyleaving them to train themselves.3. Cooperate with the workers to ensure that the scientifically developed methodsare being followed.
 
4. Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that themanagers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and theworkers actually perform the tasks.
Drawbacks of scientific management
While scientific management principles improved productivity, and had substantialimpact on industry, they also increased the monotony of work. The core job dimensionsof skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback in all weremissing from the picture of scientific management.
Advantages of Scientific Management style
On account of large scale production, per unit cost of production is considerablyreduced. By resorting to the measures of standardisation and effective supervision, better quality products are ensured. The division of labour is also given increased importanceunder this type of management because it strictly believes in the principle of scientificmanagement.The work is simplified and is carried out in the most economical and efficient manner.Scientific management is instrumental in developing health cooperation between themanagement and the subordinates thereby encouraging a cordial and harmoniousrelationship between the two.This type of management is also beneficial for the workers as they start getting higher salaries than before. The recruitment is also done on scientific lines and the right kind oman is chosen for the exact post. Scientific management provides proper atmosphere of work to the personnel. Proper working hours followed by rest pauses, adequate lighting,freshening air, ensuring proper safety, and provision of many other facilities etc are madecertain.Under scientific management the work is carried out systematically in accordance with predetermined plans. Wastage of time is reduced to a minimum and the quality of work isenhanced. Production operations are pre-established and this results in lesser productiondelays.
HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACH
The human relations approach argues that people are emotional rather than economic-rational beings; organisations are cooperative social systems rather than mechanical ones;and organisations are composed of informal structures, rules and norms as well as formal practices and procedures.The human relations approach represents a distinct break from the classical approach.However both share two important similarities. Firstly, they see organisations as closedand unchanged entities. Second and relatedly, they believe that they is ‘one best way’ of managing the organisation, regardless of the type, nature or size of the organisation, andthat their way is ‘the best way’
 
JOB ROTATION
Job rotation is an approach to management development where an individual is movedthrough a schedule of assignment designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to theentire operation.Job rotation is the surest way of keeping the employee away from complacency and boredom of routine. It is difficult for an employee to sustain his interest in a given job for any substantial length of time because humans have the tendency of outgrowing their  jobs through the learning and experience that they gain over a period of time.Stimulating human mind through diversity of challenges is a sure way to bring to theforefront its creative instincts and in taking the individual and organisational performanceto a higher plane. This is where job rotation can prove to be a handy tool.A well planned job rotation programme in an organisation has immense potential of  positive impact on job satisfaction, engagement of people and finally on retention of  people.For employees these outcomes include:
Job enrichment
Overall development
Intrinsic motivation to perform caused by newer challenges
Career developmentWhere as for an organisation, the benefits could include some of the following;
Leadership development
Aligning competencies with organisational requirements
Lower attrition rates
Performance improvement driven by unique view points of new people.
Realising the potential of job rotation
In order to realise the true potential of job rotation, there must be a planned system in place with the policy taking the following into account.
Organisational interest - employee commitment , attrition rates, specific businessissues etc
Eligibility of the employees - qualifications, prior experience, aptitude,competence etc
 Nature of the task - mandatory or voluntary
The basis of selection of individual employees.

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