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Intro to Vibration 3622336A_p

Intro to Vibration 3622336A_p

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Published by stephen_glad6189
This article provides an overview of machine vibration; its causes, effects and characteristics
This article provides an overview of machine vibration; its causes, effects and characteristics

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Published by: stephen_glad6189 on Mar 30, 2010
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10/23/2014

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Introduction to vibration
 White Paper
In simplest terms, vibration in motorized equip-ment is merely the back and forth movement oroscillation of machines and components, suchas drive motors, driven devices (pumps, com-pressors and so on) and the bearings, shafts,gears, belts and other elements that make upmechanical systems.Vibration in industrial equipment can be botha sign and a source of trouble. Other times,vibration just “goes with the territory” as anormal part of machine operation, and shouldnot cause undue concern. But how can the plantmaintenance professional tell the differencebetween acceptable, normal vibration, and thekind of vibration that requires immediate atten-tion to service or replace troubled equipment? With a basic understanding of vibrationand its causes—and equipped with the newand unique Fluke 810 Vibration Tester—themaintenance professional can quickly andreliably determine the cause and severity of most machine vibration and receive recom-mendations for repair. It’s all done with theintelligence built into the tester, without theextensive monitoring and recording requiredfor typical, long-term vibration monitoringprograms.Vibration is not always a problem. In sometasks, vibration is essential. Machines such asoscillating sanders and vibratory tumblers usevibration to remove materials and nish sur-faces. Vibratory feeders use vibration to movematerials. In construction, vibrators are usedto help concrete settle into forms and compactll materials. Vibratory rollers help compressasphalt used in highway paving.In other cases vibration is inherent inmachine design. For instance, some vibra-tion is almost unavoidable in the operation of reciprocating pumps and compressors, internalcombustion engines and gear drives. In a wellengineered, well maintained machine, suchvibration should be no cause for concern.
When vibration is a problem
Most industrial devices are engineered to oper-ate smoothly and AVOID vibration, not produceit. In these machines, vibration can indicate
 Vibration technology 
problems or deterioration in the equipment. If the underlying causes are not corrected, theunwanted vibration itself can cause additionaldamage.In this paper we are focused not on machinesthat are “supposed” to vibrate as part of normaloperation, but on those that should not vibrate:electric motors, rotary pumps and compres-sors, and fans and blowers. In these devicessmoother operation is generally better, and amachine running with zero vibration is theideal.
Most common causes of machinevibration
Vibration can result from a number of condi-tions, acting alone or in combination. Keep inmind that vibration problems may be causedby auxiliary equipment, not just the primaryequipment.These are some of the major causes of vibration.
Imbalance
– A “heavy spot” in a rotat-ing component will cause vibration whenthe unbalanced weight rotates around themachine’s axis, creating a centrifugal force.Imbalance could be caused by manufactur-ing defects (machining errors, casting aws)or maintenance issues (deformed or dirty fanblades, missing balance weights). As machinespeed increases the effects of imbalancebecome greater. Imbalance can severely reducebearing life as well as cause undue machinevibration.
 
2 Fluke Corporation Introduction to vibration
Misalignment/shaft runout
– Vibrationcan result when machine shafts are out of line.Angular misalignment occurs when the axes of (for example) a motor and pump are not paral-lel. When the axes are parallel but not exactlyaligned, the condition is known as parallelmisalignment. Misalignment may be causedduring assembly or develop over time, due tothermal expansion, components shifting orimproper reassembly after maintenance. Theresulting vibration may be radial or axial (inline with the axis of the machine) or both.
Wear
– As components such as ball or rollerbearings, drive belts or gears become worn,they may cause vibration. When a roller bear-ing race becomes pitted, for instance, thebearing rollers will cause a vibration eachtime they travel over the damaged area. A geartooth that is heavily chipped or worn, or a drivebelt that is breaking down, can also producevibration.
Looseness
– Vibration that might other-wise go unnoticed may become obvious anddestructive if the component that is vibratinghas loose bearings or is loosely attached toits mounts. Such looseness may or may not becaused by the underlying vibration. Whateverits cause, looseness can allow any vibra-tion present to cause damage, such as furtherbearing wear, wear and fatigue in equipmentmounts and other components.
Effects of vibration
The effects of vibration can be severe.Unchecked machine vibration can acceler-ate rates of wear (i.e. reduce bearing life) anddamage equipment. Vibrating machinery cancreate noise, cause safety problems and lead todegradation in plant working conditions. Vibra-tion can cause machinery to consume excessivepower and may damage product quality.In the worst cases, vibration can damageequipment so severely as to knock it out of service and halt plant production. Yet there is a positive aspect to machinevibration. Measured and analyzed correctly,vibration can be used in a preventive main-tenance program as an indicator of machinecondition, and help guide the plant mainte-nance professional to take remedial actionbefore disaster strikes.
Characteristics of vibration
To understand how vibration manifests itself,consider a simple rotating machine like an elec-tric motor. The motor and shaft rotate aroundthe axis of the shaft, which is supported by abearing at each end.One key consideration in analyzing vibrationis the
direction
of the vibrating force. In ourelectric motor, vibration can occur as a forceapplied in a radial direction (outward from theshaft) or in an axial direction (parallel to theshaft).An imbalance in the motor, for instance,would most likely cause a radial vibration asthe “heavy spot” in the motor rotates, creating acentrifugal force that tugs the motor outward asthe shaft rotates through 360 degrees. A shaftmisalignment could cause vibration in an axialdirection (back and forth along the shaft axis),due to misalignment in a shaft coupling device.Another key factor in vibration is
amplitude
,or how much force or severity the vibrationhas. The farther out of balance our motor is, thegreater its amplitude of vibration. Other factors,such as speed of rotation, can also affect vibra-tion amplitude. As rotation rate goes up, theimbalance force increases signicantly.
Frequency
refers to the oscillation rate of vibration, or how rapidly the machine tendsto move back and forth under the force of thecondition or conditions causing the vibration.Frequency is commonly expressed in cycles perminute or Hertz (CPM or Hz). One Hz equals onecycle per second or 60 cycles per minute.Though we called our example motor ‘simple,’even this machine can exhibit a complexvibration signature. As it operates it could bevibrating in multiple directions (radially andaxially), with several rates of amplitude andfrequency. Imbalance vibration, axial vibra-tion, vibration from deteriorating roller bearingsand more all could combine to create a complexvibration
spectrum
.

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