Raster Graphics andClipping
After completing this unit, you should be able to:
describe computer graphics, its features and characteristics;
discuss applications of computer graphics in various fields, and
describe various types of hardware, required to work with graphic systems.
1.2 WHAT IS COMPUTER GRAPHICS?
The meaning of the term Graphics, is Graphical Tricks. Every image or picture is infact a graph and when different mathematical tricks are used to manipulate somechange in its properties like shape, size, motion etc., through the help of computersthen, the representation is nothing but computer graphics, so we can say that
Computer Graphics (CG) is the field of visual computing, where one utilisescomputers both to generate visual images synthetically and to integrate or alter visual and spatial information sampled from the real world
Computer Graphics is the pictorial representation manipulation of data by a computer
Computer Graphics refers to any sketch, drawing, special artwork or other materialgenerated with the help of computer to pictorially depict an object or a process or otherwise convey information, as a supplement to or instead of written descriptions
”.Computer Graphics is a complex and diversified field. A Picture is a fundamentalcohesive concept in Computer Graphics. Each picture consists of points called pixels(Picture- element). If we consider a complex picture, then complex database forpixels are considered, hence, complex algorithm are required to access them. Thesecomplex database contain data organised in various data structures such as ringstructures,B-tree etc.In our earlier courses CS-60, we had learned mathematical tricks to do jugglery withthe graphs that resulted from different functions, now let us learn how to juggle withgraphics by using computers. There are many algorithms, which can be materialisedto produce graphical effects on the screen through several graphical tools based ondifferent languages that are available in the market.Computer graphics can be broadly divided into the following classes:
Business Graphics or the broader category of Presentation Graphics, which refersto graphics, such as bar-charts (also called histograms), pie-charts, pictograms(i.e., scaled symbols), x-y charts, etc. used to present quantitative information toinform and convince the audience.
Scientific Graphics, such as x-y plots, curve-fitting, contour plots, system orprogram flowcharts etc.
Scaled Drawings, such as architectural representations, drawings of buildings,bridges, and machines.
Cartoons and artwork, including advertisements.
Graphics User Interfaces (GUIs) which are the images that appear on almost allcomputer screens these days, designed to help the user utilise the softwarewithout having to refer to manuals or read a lot of text on the monitor.We will discuss the various classes of computer graphics mentioned above in thefollowing sections of this unit.
most familiar and useful class of computer graphics involves movies and videogames.
Movies generally need graphics that are indistinguishable from physicalreality, whereas video games need graphics that can be generated quickly enough tobe perceived as smooth motion. These two needs are incompatible, but they definetwo-ways of communications between users and computations. In video games, the6