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6388631 Pedia Penta Notes

6388631 Pedia Penta Notes

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Published by: exzyekay on Mar 31, 2010
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03/26/2013

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1.A Growth and DevelopmentGrowth
- increase in physical size of a structure or whole.- quantitative change.
Two parameters of Growth1.Weight
- most sensitive measure of growth, especially low birth rate. Weight doubles - 6 monthsTriples - 1 year Quadruples- 2 - 2 ½ years
2. Height
- increase by 1inch per month during 1
st
6 months- half inch per month by 7 months- average increase in height - 1
st
year = 50%- increase in height coincide with eruption of wisdom tooth.
Development
- increase skills or capability to function- qualitative
How to measure development1.
By simply observing a child doing specific task.
2.
By noting parent’s description of the child’s progress
3.
By DDST- Denver Development Screening Test.MMDST (Phil) Metro Manila Developmental Screening Test.DDST measures mental
4 main rated categories of DDST
1. Language communication2. personal social - interaction3. fine motor adaptive - ability to use hand movement; pre Hensile activity4. gross motor skills - large body movement
3. Maturation
- synonymous with development “readiness”;[pagiging handa]
4.Cognitive development
 – ability to learn and understand from experience-to acquire and retain knowledge- to respond to a new situation and to solve problems.Learning – change of behavior IQ test - test to determine cognitive developmentMental age x 100 = IQChronological ageAverage IQ 90-100Gifted child - > 130 IQGenius - Over 1401
 
1.BBasic Divisions of LifeStages:I.
 
Prenatal stage
 ( from conception to birth )
II.Period of infancy
1.Neonatal - 1
st
28 days of life or 1
st
4 weeks of life2.Formal infancy - 29
th
day – 1 year 
III.Early childhood
1.Toddler – 1-3 years2.Pre school 4 - 6 years
IV.Middle childhood
1.School age- 7 – 12 yrs
V.Late childhood (Adolescent Period)
1.Pre adolescent 11 – 13 years2.Adolescent ( 12 - 18 – 21 ) overlapping of age
1.CPrinciples of Growth and Development1.
Growth and Development is a continuous process- begins from conception - ends in death- womb to tomb principles
2
. Not all parts of the body grow at the same time or at same rate.- asynchronism or asynchronous growth –  
Patterns of Growth and Development1.
)
renaldigestive
grows sparely smoothly during childhood
circulatorymusculoskeletal2.
)
Neuromuscular tissue
(CNS, brain, Spinal cord)-grow rapidly 1 - 2 years of life- brain achieved its adult proportion by
5 years.
Significance:
Food for the brain “POTATO”
3.
)
Lymphatic system
- lymph nodes- spleen grows rapidly- infancy and childhood to provide protection- infection-tonsil achieve its adult proportion by 5 years
4.
)
Reproductive Organ
- grows rapidly at puberty2
 
 
Rates of Growth and Development1.
Fetal and infancy – most rapid Growth and Development
2.
Adolescent - rapid Growth and Development
3.
Toddler - slow Growth period
4.
Toddler and preschool - alternating rapid and slow
5.
School age - slower growthfetal and infancy- prone to develop anemia
3
.Each child is unique
2 primary factors affecting Growth and DevelopmentA. Heredity
-
– race
I 
 – intelligence
S
– sex
N
- nationalityFemales are born less inweight than males by 1 oz.Females are born less inlength than males by 1 inch
B. EnvironmentQ
quality of nutrition
S
socio economic status
H
health
O
 – ordinal position in family
P
 – parent - child relationshipEldest - skillful in language and social skillsYounger - toilet trained self 
4.
Growth and Development occurs in a regular direction reflecting a definitive andpredictable patterns or trends.
A. Directional trends
- occur in a regular direction reflecting the development of neuromuscular function: these apply to physical, mental, social and emotionaldevelopments and includes:a.
Cephalo - caudal
“head to tail”It occurs along bodies’ long axis in which control over head,mouth and eye movements and precedes control over upper  body torso and legs. b.
Proximo- distal
“Centro distal”-progressing form center of body to extremities.c.
Symmetrical
- at side of body develop on same direction at same timeat same rate.
d.Mass specific “differentiation
In which the child learns form simple operations before complexfunctions or move from a broad general pattern of behavior to amore refined pattern.3

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