2the last half of the 19th century. Allowed companies to produce synthetic dyes from coal tar for the textile industry as early as the 1850s. BASF was licensed to operate its organization wasissued on April 27, 1865. the founding Fathers were Friedrich Engehoren. In 1865 he makes hisdream a trail blazing reality. On 6
April he found a Stock Corporation in Mannheim under thename Badische Anilm-Und Soda Fabric.In the 1890s, German companies began mass producing sulfuric acid and, at about thesame time, chemical companies began using the electrolytic method, which required largeamounts of electricity and salt, to create caustic soda and chlorinc. Man-made fibers changed thetextile industry when rayon (made from wood fibers) was introduced in 1914; the introduction of synthetic fertilizers by the American Cyanamid Company in 1909 led to a green revolution inagriculture that dramatically improved crop yields. Advances in the manufacture of plastics ledto the invention of celluloid in 1869 and the creation of such products as nylon by Due Pont in1928. Research in organic chemistry in the 1910s allowed companies in the 1920s and 30s to begin producing chemicals for oil. Today, petrochemicals made from oil are the industry'slargest sector. Synthetic rubber came into existence during World War II, when the war cut off supplies of rubber from Asia. Since the 1950s growing concern about toxic waste produced by chemical industries has led to increased government regulation and the establishment of theEnvironmental Protection Agency (1972), The leakage of toxic chemicals at the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India (1984), was the worst industrial disaster in history and heightened publicconcern about lax environmental regulations for chemical companies in developing countries.Beginning in the 1980s, U.S. corporations faced expanding competition from foreign producers,including some Third World oil producers who have set up their own oil refining and petrochemical industries. In 1997 the U.S. chemical industry produced about $389 billionworth of products and employed 1,032,000 workers. It exported about $71 billion worth of chemicals. U.S. chemical industry shipments total about $450 billion annually. The industry is amajor provider of raw materials for consumers, manufacturing, defense, and exports (about 15 percent of the total). End markets include consumer products, health care, construction, homefurnishings, paper, textiles, paints, electronics, food, and transportation. In fact, most industriesuse chemicals as their key raw materials. For example, the auto has about $1,500 of chemicalssuch as paints, lube oils, rubber tyres, plastic, and synthetic fibers a cell phone is feasible because of its use of silicon-based chemicals and a durable plastic assembly; microwave ovensare made with silicon chips, plastic housings, and fire-retardant plastic additives.