Published in C. Crawford et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher EducationInternational Conference 2010 (pp. 1712-1717). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/p/33604.
M e s s a g e
R e c e i v e r
experienceeffectselection of thefull supplyforce of the mediumimage of the mediumself-perceptionas a personalityas part of the publicin social relationships
C o m m u n i c a t o r
self-perceptionin a teamin an institutionin social relationshipsas personalitydesignselectionforce of the message public force (agenda, opinions,social norms and valuesforce of the mediumimage of the Communicator on receiver-sideimage of the Receiver on communicator-sidespontaneous answers of the receiver
Fig. 2: Field-Schema of Mass Communication after Maletzke, 1963
- The members of a disperse public are locally separated from each other.- There is no interpersonal relationship between the members of a disperse public.
The field-schema of Mass Communication
One model which considers the interactive aspect of communication is the Field-Schema of Mass Communication(Maletzke, 1963). In this model sociological group- and system correlations get significant. The field contains thefour elements: communicator, message, medium and receiver. These four factors are interactive and have influenceon each other. The
constitutes of one or more persons (communicator-side), who select, design and publish messages. The
incorporates content and form of the statement. The
is a technical devicewhich supports the distribution of the message. The
- or the receiver-side - picks up the signal and decodesthe message.
The function of the field-schema
Because of technical characteristics, each medium modifies the process of perception and experience of the messagetransmitted and received. But it depends on the receiver if a message is chosen or ignored. Because of his allocationto the message the receiver gets part of a disperse public. Through the process of selection, experience and effect thereceiver gets an impression of his position in society, his social rolls and functions. It depends on the communicator what messages he produces, what kind of messages are offered and how they are designed. Furthermore thecommunicator has a certain character which depends on the situation and his intentions related to thecommunication process. The selection of the content and the production of the message are depending on the self- perception of the communicator. Other factors of influence are the profession of the communicator, his tasks withinhis profession, his roles and functions within a team or institution and the society within he lives and work.Interactive elements as answers, requests, affliction and suggestions stop the one-way-communication process of mass communication although as spontaneous contact between communicator and receiver. The process getsmodified by generated images of each other: On communicator-side occurs an image of the receiver and on thereceiver-side an image of the communicator (a shown in fig. 2 below).
Model Adaption to Twitter
How can these traditional models be linked to the communicational behaviour on Twitter? Which similarities andwhich differences occur and what implications occur?Apart from the fact that on Twitter a lot of people write trivial statements to no distinct person we havecommunicating individuals which are sending messages through a medium to an unknown public. This fact matchesthe basic definition of mass communication. So Twitter is a mass media and there is mass communication within.The tweets are seen as messages which are sent by different communicators (Twitter users) through a medium(Twitter application) to different receivers (followers and/or people who read the tweets but are not identified asfollowers of a user). So at first sight Twitter is public and the published tweets are indirect and unidirectional for anundefined, disperse public with all its essential criteria we have listed above. The users are scattered all over theworld and take part of Twitter from mobile, client or web interface. In difference to traditional mass media,messages on Twitters timeline appear in real time and are not temporally shifted. The criterion of a unidirectional