α Clearance angle: Is the angle included by the tool flank and a plane containingthe main motion. Its purpose is to decrease the friction between the tool and the work piece β Rake angle: Is the angle included by the tool face and a plane perpendicular tothe main motion. It helps the cutting and the chip formation.γ Wedge angle: Is the angle included by the tool face and flank. Its size dependsmainly on the work piece material fig. 10.5. If it is too big than required , the tool willneed high force to penetrate the work piece. At the same time , if it is too small , it willweaken the tool and cause its rapid failure.
Fig 10.5 Main Cutting Angles
10.4Cutting conditions for basic machining processes
The cutting speed (v) is the speed at which the cutting edge travels relative to themachined surface of the work piece.
The feed rate (f) is the distance advanced by the cutting tool relative to the machinedsurface in a direction which is usually normal to the cutting speed. Its units can bemm/cycle, mm/min, mm/rev, mm/stroke or mm/tooth depending on the type of themachining operation and the tool used.
Depth of cut:
The depth of cut (t) is the normal distance from the original surface before machiningto the machined surface. As depicted in fig. 10.6Chip cross section area = depth of cut x feed = t . f mm
material removal rate( V
) = depth of cut x feed x speed = t . f . v mm
/ minThe material removal rate (V
) is the volume of metal removed per unit time , its unitsshould be mm
/ min. Figure 10.6 shows the basic machining processes and the tool /work piece motions.The material removal rate (V
) can be calculated as follows:a)
= 1 . f . t . N mm
/ minwhere N is the number of strokes per minute and all other dimensions are in mm. b)
drillingSoft materialsMedium hard materialsHard materials