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Metal Cutting Technology

Metal Cutting Technology

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Published by: dema_dias on Apr 01, 2010
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05/30/2013

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CHAPTER 10
Metal Cutting Technology 
10.1Cutting Action and Chip Formation
A thin sharp knife is used to cut very soft materials like bread , vegetables and fruitswhere parts of the material are separated without chip formation , fig. 10.1
Fig. 10.1: knife Cutting
For cutting materials with a much higher strength like metals and alloys, a much higher cutting force will be needed. Therefore, the cutting tool will be massive.The intensive pressure between the tool face and the work piece and the sharp cutting edge will shear and tear the work piece and separate small pieces from its surface (chip), see fig. 10.2
Fig. 10.2 Cutting Action
The tearing of the chip from the work naturally leaves the work surface in a torn andrough condition . it is at this point that the extreme tip of the tool does its job bytrimming of the irregularities and leaving the surface in a fairly smooth condition .
 
A small worn area may be observed at point (A) of a tool which has been cutting for along time without having reground .
10.2Types of chip
Three types of chip can be identified like those shown in fig 10.3. The type of chipresulting from the cutting process is related mainly to the following variables:-Work piece material -Cutting tool angles, especially the rake angle.-Cutting speed and cross sectional area of chip.The main three types of chip are:A) continuous chip which results when cutting soft materials like copper, aluminumand mild steel or when the rake angle is relatively big.
B)
sheared chip which results when the hardness of work piece material increases or when the rake angle decreases.C) discontinuous chip which results when the brittleness of work piece materialincreases and the rake angle decreases to become zero or even negative.
Fig. 10.3 Types of Chip
10.3Cutting tool angles
Fig 10.4 shows some of the important angles in a single point tool. The clearance or relief angle avoid rubbing of the tool on the work surface. The lip angle provide for thetool strength. For hard materials, this angle is larger than what it should be for softer materials. The rake angle helps the tool peeling the chip instead of pushing it off. Thecutting angle controls the cutting operation. If it is less than 90 (negative rake angle)we say that the tool cuts, and if its larger than 90 we say that the tool scraps the work  piece.
Fig 10.4 Tool Angles
 
 α Clearance angle: Is the angle included by the tool flank and a plane containingthe main motion. Its purpose is to decrease the friction between the tool and the work  piece β Rake angle: Is the angle included by the tool face and a plane perpendicular tothe main motion. It helps the cutting and the chip formation.γ Wedge angle: Is the angle included by the tool face and flank. Its size dependsmainly on the work piece material fig. 10.5. If it is too big than required , the tool willneed high force to penetrate the work piece. At the same time , if it is too small , it willweaken the tool and cause its rapid failure.
Fig 10.5 Main Cutting Angles
10.4Cutting conditions for basic machining processes
Cutting speed:
The cutting speed (v) is the speed at which the cutting edge travels relative to themachined surface of the work piece.
Feed rate:
The feed rate (f) is the distance advanced by the cutting tool relative to the machinedsurface in a direction which is usually normal to the cutting speed. Its units can bemm/cycle, mm/min, mm/rev, mm/stroke or mm/tooth depending on the type of themachining operation and the tool used.
Depth of cut:
The depth of cut (t) is the normal distance from the original surface before machiningto the machined surface. As depicted in fig. 10.6Chip cross section area = depth of cut x feed = t . f mm
2
material removal rate( V
m
) = depth of cut x feed x speed = t . f . v mm
3
/ minThe material removal rate (V
m
) is the volume of metal removed per unit time , its unitsshould be mm
3
/ min. Figure 10.6 shows the basic machining processes and the tool /work piece motions.The material removal rate (V
m
) can be calculated as follows:a)
shaping
V
m
= 1 . f . t . N mm
3
/ minwhere N is the number of strokes per minute and all other dimensions are in mm. b)
drillingSoft materialsMedium hard materialsHard materials

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