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Metal Cutting Technology 2

Metal Cutting Technology 2

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Published by: dema_dias on Apr 01, 2010
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04/14/2012

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CHAPTER 12
Milling, shaping and grinding
12.1 Introduction 
Milling is a process in which the work piece is advanced with a suitable feed rate to amultiple point cutter rotating at comparatively high speed, with the cutter axis of rotation in a fixed position.The rotational axis of the milling cutter may be horizontal (i.e. parallel to themachined surface), fig.12.1. This is called plain milling. Plain milling is usuallycarried out on a horizontal milling machine, fig 12.3a.When the rotational axis of the milling cutter is perpendicular to the machined surface,the process is called face milling or end milling, fig 12.2 Vertical milling machines arethe machines mostly used for this type of milling, fig 12.3bPlain Milling face Milling or end Millingfig.12.1 fig12.2
12.2 Milling Machines
Fig.12.2 shows the basic features of a horizontal milling machine, while fig.12.4shows the basic features of a vertical milling machine.
Fig 12.3 (a) Schematic illustration of a horizontal-spindle column-and-knee-typemilling machine. (b) Schematic illustration of a vertical-spindle column-and-knee-type milling machine.
 Source
: G. Boothroyd,
Fundamentals of Machining and Machine Tools.
12.3 Milling Cutting Mechanism
In milling each tooth on a tool removes part of the stock in the form of a chip.• There are two types of cutting actions,Peripheral - The teeth at the periphery do the cuttingFace - The teeth on the face of the cutter remove metal.
 
• The basic interface between tool and work is pictured below. This shows a peripheralmilling tooth.
Fig. 12.4 Up cut (conventional ) milling
 
Up-Cut Milling
The milling method shown above in fig. 12.4 is called up-cut (or conventional)milling. In this case the tableis moving towards the cutter, opposing the cutter direction. The basic steps of chipcutting hereare,1. As the tooth makes contact with the surface, the tooth begins to push down. As thetooth continues to turn, it reaches a point at which the pressure has built up to a highlevel, and the tooth begin to dig in.2. As the tooth starts to dig, it cuts down, and the metal chip begins to shear off.3. The tooth continues to cut the chip off, until it reaches the surface of the material.At this point the chip breaks free, and the cutting forces drop to zero. Because thecutter does not start to cut when it makes contact, and because the advance moves
Down-Cut Milling
When the cutter rotation is in the same direction as the motion of the work being fed,it is
 
referred to a Down-cut, or climb milling.
 
When this cutter makes contact with the work, it must begin cutting at the maximumtorque. As a result, a back-lash eliminator must be used to take play out of the system.• This method has advantages,
Fig. 12.5 Up cut and down cut milling
- The cutter forces are directed into the table, which reduces fixture forces, and allows
 
thinner workpieces- There is less radial pressure on the arbor - Better surface finishes obtained because there is no “dig-in”
12.4 Types of Milling Cutters1)plain and face Milling Cutters
Fig12.6 shows types of milling cutters.a)Plain milling cutters have helical or straight teeth; they are used foroughing and finishing of plain surfaces on horizontal machines.
Fig. 12.6 Different types of milling cutters
 b)Interlocking plain milling cutters with helical teeth opposite each other to compensate for axial forces. Suitable for heavy cuts.c)Face milling cutters have teeth on both the periphery and on one end.For milling plane surfaces and shoulders on horizontal and verticalmachines.2)
Side Milling Cutters
a)Saws for parting off and for narrow slots. Straight teeth slotters for shallow slots. b)Side milling cutters with teeth on three sides for deep slots.
Fig12.7 Side milling cutter

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