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Veterinary Helminthology Midterms

Veterinary Helminthology Midterms

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Published by: humanupgrade on Apr 01, 2010
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VETERINARY HELMINTHOLOGYTAPEWORM/ CESTODES
General Characteristics:1. ribbon-like and dorsoventrally flattened2. most of the show indirect types of life cycle. Theexceptional type of life cycle is found in Hymenolepis sppwhere direct and indirect types are found.3. they are hermaphrodite4. cysts or bladderworms are intermediate or larval stage of the parasite5. the final host gets infection by ingestion of intermediatehost or flesh of intermediate host containing the bladdeworms6. the body can be divided into three broad parts
Head/ Scolex
-very minute as compared to other parts-shape varies which may be roughly triangular,ball shaped or round-there is presence of sucker (armed or unarmed ) which is notused for taking food but used as apertures for attachment-anteriorly there is structure called rostellum
Neck 
-immediately behind the head and without any segment-segmentation starts here
Body
-area is completely segmented Three types of segments are present:
IMMATURE
- the reproductive system and eggs are absent
MATURE
- completely developed reproductive system
GRAVID
- reproductive system is replaced by the eggs-either detached from the parasite or its disintegratedand the eggs are expelled out
Eggs
:-have basic structure comprising oncosphere or hexacanthembryo, a striated shell or embryophore and a delicatemembrane-the following are the events which occur during biologicaldevelopment:a. Eggs are expelled out from the gravid segmentb. the eggs are ingested by the intermediate hosts andhatching occurs in the intermediate host or hatch in theenvironment (
Cotyloda
)-metacestodes / bladderworms / cyst / larval stages are formedin the intermediate host-final host gets the infection by ingestion of the intermediatehost or the muscles and flesh containing the cysts or  bladderworms
Poultry Tapeworm
Genus Raillietina-small to medium-sized tapeworm that inhabit the smallintestine-cosmopolitan in distributionSpecies:R. cesticillusR. echidnobothridaR. tetragonaR. asiaticaR. celebensisR. demerariensis
R. cesticillus
Morphology:1. smaller (4-15 cm) than R. tetragona, R.echidnobothrida2. broad rostellum which is armed with 400-500 hooks3. circular sucker is unarmed4. egg capsule contains single egg
R. echidnobothrida
Morphology1. size is 8.5-22 cm2. suckers are circular and surrounded byseveral rows of hooks3. rostellum is very small4. egg capsule contains multiple eggs 
R. tetragona
1. 25 cm long and largest tapeworm in poultry2. rostellum is small and possesses one or tworows of hooks3. egg capsule contains multiple eggs4. sucker is oval and surrounded by severalrows of hooksLIFE CYLCE:
egg
oncosphere
cysticercoid ( infective stage )
adult
 
Ants and Musca domestica acts as IH of R. tetragona and R.echidnobothrida. The beetle acts as IH for R. cesticillusPathogenesis:1. nodule formation in the intestine by R.echidnobothrida2. enteritis by R. tetragona and R. cesticillus
Genus Davainea
D. proglottinaD. meleagridisMorphology1. very small only several mm that’s why it isadvised to take mucosal scraping for itsdetection2. has prominent rostellum armed with hammer-shaped hooks3. presence of single set of reproductive organwhich alternates regularly4. has 4-9 segments5. egg capsule contains single eggLife cycle:EggOncosphereCysticercoid in IH (infective stage on ants or slugs)Adult The gravid segments crawl out of the host. The gravidsegments are actively motile and crawl onto the grass bladedue to its phototactic nature. The eggs are released during theact of crawling. The eggs hatch after ingested by IH andcysticercoid is formed within a month. The final host gets theinfection when the infected snails are ingested by the birds.
Family Dipyliidae:
Dipylidium caninum- double pored tapeworm of dogsMorphology:1. head or scolex is pyriform in shaped havinghooks characteristically rose-thorn shaped2. presence of two sets of reproductive system likeMoniezia spp3. mature segments are cucumber seed shapeLIFE CYCLE:eggonchospherecystercercoid in IH (flea C. canis, C. felis, T. canis, Pulex sp )adultGravid segments get detached from the adult tapeworm andcrawl. During crawling the eggs are released from the gravidsegment. The IH ingest the eggs and hatched in the gut andoncospheres are released and these migrate in the body cavity.A cysticercoid with tail appendage is formed within fewweeks. Final host gets the infection by ingestion of theinfected IH.Pathogenesis:1. sloughing, denudation of mucosa2. constant irritation of the anal sac resulting toanal pruritus3. intoxication due to absorption of themetabolites released by the parasites whichaffects the nervous systemDiagnosis:1. examination of fecal sample2. dragging anus over the ground or any hardobjects
Family Anoplocephalidae
: common cestodes of equineMorphology:1. rostellum and hooks are present2. segments are noticeably broad\3. presence of egg capsule or paruterine organ4. eggs have 3 coverings; the outermost formed bythe vitelline gland, middle albuminous andinner chitinous5. eggs of many members bear a pear shapedstructure called pyriform apparatusGenera:Anoplocephala MonieziaParanocephala CittotaeniaPseudanocephala Other SpeciesAnoplocephalamagnaAnoplocephala perfoliataPseudoanoplocephalamamillana
1. Largestcestode foundin the horsefound in SIand stomachSmall intestineSi and stomach2. 80 cm long1-8 cm 0.6- 5 cm3. Testes arearranged inrows. Thenumber of testes are 400-500250 1004. Pyriformapparatus isnot strong andlargeLarge andstrongLarge and srongLappets areabsentpresentabsent
 
LIFE CYCLE:EggOnchosphereCysticercoid in IH ( mite)AdultPathogenesis:A. perfoliata particularly affects the ileocecal orifices andthey produce depressed ulcers which is dasrk in color and maycause perforation of SIA. magna causes hemorrhagic enteritis obstruction of theintestinal lumenP. mamillana less significant
Family HymenolepididaeH. cariocaH. diminutaH. nanadwarf tapeworm
1. 3-8 cm2-6 cm7-80 cm2. 500segments500 segmentsFew segments3. testes lieacross thesegmentTestes areovoidTestes lie in lineand separated bythe ovaryLIFE CYCLE:eggonchospherecysticercoid in IHadult
Family Taeniidae
Morphology1. large tapeworm2. proglottids are rectangular 3. rostellum may or may not be present4. segments are longer and broader 5. uterus has median stem and lateral branches6. egg capsule is easily lost and the embryo pore is striated inappearnaceIntermediateStageIntermediatehost
Taenia solium
Cysticercuscellulosae pig
Taenia saginata
Cysticercus boviscattle
Taeniahydatigena
CysticercustenuicollisSheep,ruminants
Taenia pisiformis
Cysticercus pisiformisrabbits
Taeniataeniaformis
Cysticercusfasciolarisrodents
Taenia multiceps
CoenuruscerebralisSheep Andgoat
Taenia saginataTaenia solium
Host is manmanRostellum is absent Present armed withhooks1000-2000 segments800- 1000segmentsOvary is bilobedtrilobedOval eggSphericalUterus has 14-32 branches16 branches
Taenia solium
Life cycle:egg ( hatch after being ingested)Onchosphere ( migrates in different organs and tissues)Cysticercus ( infective stage in the pork )Adult ( ingestion of infected ham and pork )Man gets infection by the ff: ways1. ingestion of pork containing cysticercus2. ingestion of eggs through the food and cysticercusdevelops in man3. by autoinfection due to retrosperistaltic movement. Theeggs return to the stomach and hatchPredisposing factors:1. eating habits of people2. large scale implementation of insewcticidePathogenesis:Man1. utilize the nutrition of the host2. causes enteritis3. neurocysticercosis Pig1. measly pork- presence of cysticerci in different organsor tissue

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